Corporate Finance
  • Self Regulatory Organizations (SROs) in India's securities market

    Date Submitted: 02 Aug 2019
    Views: 71
    Downloads: 4
    A response of the Indian Association of Investment Professionals, a member society of the CFA Institute, to SEBI's Consultation Paper on Self Regulatory Organizations (SROs) in Securities Market. 
  • Cross-listing of Indian companies on foreign exchanges  

    Date Submitted: 02 Aug 2019
    Views: 66
    Downloads: 2
    A response of the Indian Association of Investment Professionals, a member society of the CFA Institute, to SEBI's consultative paper on listing of Indian companies on foreign stock exchanges and listing of foreign companies in India. 
  • Issuance of equity shares with differential voting rights in India

    Date Submitted: 02 Aug 2019
    Views: 36
    Downloads: 4
    A response of the Indian Association of Investment Professionals, a member society of the CFA Institute, to SEBI's Consultation Paper on Issuance of Equity Shares with Differential Voting Rights. 
  • Collateral and loan risk premium: Evidence from China

    Source: Yongmin Zhang
    Date Submitted: 02 Aug 2019
    Views: 34
    Downloads: 2
    Conflicting empirical results demonstrate both positive and negative relationships between loan risk premia and collateral. The mixed empirical results may come from different economic characteristics of collateral type and loan purpose.
  • Board structure of Chinese firms and cross-border M&A performance

    Source: Yongmin Zhang
    Date Submitted: 02 Aug 2019
    Views: 21
    Downloads: 2
    Analysis of the impact of corporate board characteristics on Chinese firms’ cross-border M&A performance shows that gender and age diversity have a positive effect, but difference in education levels plays a negative role.

  • Q1 2019 Green Bond market update

    Source: Monica Filkova, Alan Gordon, Camille Frandon-Martinez
    Date Submitted: 28 Jun 2019
    Views: 1024
    Downloads: 21
    Green bond issuance reached USD47.9bn in Q1 2019, and surpassed Q1 2018 volume of USD33.8bn by 42%, on a clear upward trend, driven by non-financial corporates, which accounted for a third of issuance. 

    This report qualifies for 0.5 CE under the guidelines of the CFA Institute Continuing Education Program. 
    We encourage CFA Institute members to login to the CE tracking tool to self-document these credits
  • Sustainable factor investing: Where doing well meets doing good

    Source: John Hua Fan, Lachlan Michalski
    Date Submitted: 30 May 2019
    Views: 2105
    Downloads: 71
    Analysis of the impact of ESG integration on systematic factors in Australian equities shows that simultaneously exploiting ESG scores with quality, momentum and size characteristics outperforms standard factor strategies.

    This article qualifies for 1 CE credits under the guidelines of the CFA Institute Continuing Education Program.
    We encourage CFA Institute members to login to the CE tracking tool to self-document these credits.
  • PRACTITIONER’S BRIEF: What motivates distressed companies to acquire?

    Source: Rich Blake
    Date Submitted: 22 Mar 2019
    Views: 886
    Downloads: 65
    A practitioner's brief exploring the rationale behind acquisitions made by distressed firms. Based on the paper “Why Do Distressed Firms Acquire?” by Eden Quxian Zhang, lecturer in banking and finance at Monash University.
  • Lender moral hazard in state-owned banks: Evidence from an emerging economy

    Source: Balagopal Gopalakrishnan, Joshy Jacob, Ajay Pandey
    Date Submitted: 11 Feb 2019
    Views: 158
    Downloads: 14
    India's public sector banks are more likely to lend to riskier firms than private sector banks. Their lending choices include riskier service sector firms, those that borrow by pledging promoter shares and those likely to be impacted by political change.

    The paper was presented in the 2018 India Finance Conference held at Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, India.
  • ESG investing and dual-class shares in Korea

    Source: Ick Jin
    Date Submitted: 30 Jan 2019
    Views: 163
    Downloads: 13
    In Korea, Commercial Act allows companies to issue preferred stocks that do not provide any voting rights. ESG investing could contribute to both discovering the fair value of DCS and alleviating asymmetric information around DCS.

    A presentation at the 3rd ESG Symposium by CFA Korea Society on January 23.
  • Disclosure standardization and textual sentiment in equity crowdfunding: New Zealand evidence [NZFC 2019]

    Source: James Murray, Jeremy Robertson
    Date Submitted: 23 Jan 2019
    Views: 557
    Downloads: 12
    Equity crowdfunding is a relatively new development, involving the sale of shares without mandatory corporate disclosure or audited accounts. Informal disclosure norms have, nevertheless, developed, and are clearly grouped by the host platform.

    The paper has been accepted for presentation at 23rd Annual (2019) New Zealand Finance Colloquium
  • Return predictability of New Zealand stocks [NZFC 2019]

    Source: Azilawati Banchit, Sazali Abidin
    Date Submitted: 15 Jan 2019
    Views: 619
    Downloads: 15
    This research explores the causes of stock return predictability in New Zealand, focusing on price, book-to-market ratio, price momentum, volatility and volume. Two of these factors are found to be statistically significant. 

    This paper has been submitted for presentation at the 23rd Annual (2019) New Zealand Finance Colloquium.
  • Investment, accessibility to external financing and financial flexibility

    Source: Wing Chun Kwok
    Date Submitted: 14 Jan 2019
    Views: 168
    Downloads: 9
    Firms with greater access to external capital markets are more flexible in adjusting their sources of financing for corporate investment in response to mispricing, according to a study of US manufacturing firms over 37 years before 2008.

  • WORKSHOP: How IFRS15 helps understand company business

    Source: Chie Mitsui
    Date Submitted: 02 Jan 2019
    Views: 930
    Downloads: 68

    IFRS15 requires companies that enter into long-term contracts with customers, such as telecoms or membership services, to report revenues from such contracts separately from other revenues. Effective since 1 January 2018, the regulation requires a change in reporting practices.

  • Synergistic effects of CSR practices on firm value: Evidence from Asia Pacific emerging markets

    Source: Boonlert Jitmaneeroj
    Date Submitted: 19 Mar 2019
    Views: 1382
    Downloads: 38
    A study of companies in Asia Pacific emerging markets shows that firms engaging in all CSR dimensions including environmental, social, and governance practices can significantly add to the value of the firm.

    This publication qualifies for 1.0 CE credits under the guidelines of the CFA Institute Continuing Education Program.
    We encourage CFA Institute members to login to the CE tracking tool to self-document these credits.  
  • How can deep learning improve finance?

    Source: Larry Cao
    Date Submitted: 09 Dec 2018
    Views: 1077
    Downloads: 0
    Larry Cao, Director of Industry Research at CFA Institute, talks about the promises and challenges of deep learning, and how artificial intelligence finds application in the investment industry, in an interview for MioTech.
  • Do customers’ government subsidies have spillover effects on the innovation of their suppliers? Evidence from China [UniSA 2018]

    Source: Yong Wang, Erwei Xiang, Adrian (Wai Kong) Cheung, Wenjuan Ruan
    Date Submitted: 22 Nov 2018
    Views: 546
    Downloads: 5
    An investigation of the spillover effects of government subsidies received by customer companies on the innovation of their suppliers, based on data of top five customers of Chinese listed companies.  

    This paper has been submitted to the conference Politics, Stock Markets and the Economy, held at the Centre of Applied Finance and Economics, University of South Australia Business School on 4-5 December 2018.
  • Receiving next month's news: Information spillover through collateralized loan obligations [UniSA 2018]

    Source: Abe de Jong
    Date Submitted: 21 Nov 2018
    Views: 535
    Downloads: 11
    By analyzing abnormal stock returns prior to public quarterly earnings announcements, the authors find that information from private monthly reports to managers of collateralized loan obligations slowly leaks to the public market. 

    This paper has been submitted to the conference Politics, Stock Markets and the Economy, held at the Centre of Applied Finance and Economics, University of South Australia Business School on 4-5 December 2018.
  • The suspension world of the China A-shares market

    Source: Eddie Pong
    Date Submitted: 04 Nov 2018
    Views: 780
    Downloads: 19
    The Chinese regulators consider stock trading suspension an important means to alleviate issues caused by information asymmetry. Trading suspensions in the China A-shares market are frequent and long. They impose challenges on fund and portfolio operation, and lead to issues in stock market index construction and calculation. The paper provides insights for assessing the probability of trading suspensions and studies their effects. 

    This paper aims to study the suspension features of the China A-shares market and the results will be useful for market participants who carry out China A-shares investment and portfolio management.
  • The growth of sidecar joint ventures in aviation

    Source: David Yu
    Date Submitted: 29 Oct 2018
    Views: 319
    Downloads: 13
    As new capital looks to enter the aircraft leasing business, sidecar arrangements allow investors to benefit from experience and expertise of established lessors, who in return gain access to more opportunities.
  • Policy uncertainty and stock liquidity [UniSA 2018]

    Source: My Nguyen, Huu Nhan Duong, Chandrasekhar Krishnamurti, Justin Hung Nguyen, S. Ghon Rhee
    Date Submitted: 21 Nov 2018
    Views: 1787
    Downloads: 31
    Policy uncertainty has a strong negative effect on stock market liquidity, as investors hold back on trading risk-sensitive securities during periods of uncertainty. The paper explores three factors affecting liquidity: information asymmetry, cash flow risk and funding constraints. 

    This paper has been submitted to the conference Politics, Stock Markets and the Economy, held at the Centre of Applied Finance and Economics, University of South Australia Business School on 4-5 December 2018.
  • Does controlling media exposure influence regulatory decisions? [UniSA 2018]

    Source: Yanling Wu, Gary Gang Tian
    Date Submitted: 21 Nov 2018
    Views: 261
    Downloads: 6
    Based on the evidence from the initial public offerings approval decisions in China, the authors argue that in an emerging market such as China with an imperfect legal system and an immature media market, IPO firms bribe media to hide bad news, and the captured media impairs the efficiency of IPO resource allocation.

    This paper has been submitted to the conference Politics, Stock Markets and the Economy, held at the Centre of Applied Finance and Economics, University of South Australia Business School on 4-5 December 2018.
  • Changing geography of aviation finance funding

    Source: David Yu
    Date Submitted: 22 Oct 2018
    Views: 373
    Downloads: 24
    New players in the aircraft leasing business, such as commercial banks and insurance companies are adding to the geographic diversity of funding sources. This paper analyses new trends and the roles of the newcomers in the sector.
  • New Aviation Silk Road – trends, drivers, and lessons in cross-border investments and M&A in aviation

    Source: David Yu
    Date Submitted: 22 Oct 2018
    Views: 746
    Downloads: 21
    A review of cross-border investment and M&A activity in the aviation industry, highlighting a growing number of global outbound investments from Chinese investors. What are the drivers of their investment activity and lessons to be learned? 
  • Pengyuan International issues a request for comments on general structured finance rating criteria

    Source: Ke Chen
    Date Submitted: 19 Oct 2018
    Views: 217
    Downloads: 4

    Pengyuan International, a Hong Kong-based credit rating agency, publishes a call for public consultation on its general structured finance rating criteria. It invites investors and market participants to submit comments within 30 days. 


  • CFAM-FDU - Initial coin offerings and platform building

    Source: Jiasun Li, William Mann
    Date Submitted: 07 Oct 2018
    Views: 1256
    Downloads: 52
    As initial coin offerings (ICOs) explode in popularity in the startup world, they are surrounded by controversy. The response of market practitioners and regulators has varied, from enthusiasm to outright bans. Li and Mann offer an economic analysis of the role of ICOs in development of platforms. They analyze economic efficiency to pinpoint when token sales create value. Their findings have implications for regulators and practitioners in the booming ICO market.
  • Predictability, innovation, and competition in Bitcoin's mining market

    Source: Robert Parham, Einar Kjenstad
    Date Submitted: 05 Oct 2018
    Views: 152
    Downloads: 6
    Bitcoin mining has developed into an industry in its own right. But specialized equipment manufacturers (ASICs) now control the market, deriving most of the profits from it. Parham and Kjenstad analyse the economics of the Bitcoin mining market, showing that their model is able to predict energy consumption by miners and R&D expenditure by manufacturers. They then use the economics of this market to test whether more competitive industries invest more in R&D.
  • Do Private Firms (Mis)Learn from the Stock Market?

    Source: Dong Yan
    Date Submitted: 03 Oct 2018
    Views: 161
    Downloads: 9
    Are investment decisions of corporate managers influenced by the stock market? Do managers of private firms learn from stock prices of public firms in their industry when making decisions? Using UK data, the author finds a positive relationship between investments of private firms and the valuation of public firms in the same industry.
  • The Real Effects of Fake Goods: Counterfeit Products and Firm Value

    Source: Mehmet Canayaz, Umit Gurun
    Date Submitted: 03 Oct 2018
    Views: 158
    Downloads: 10
    Exposure to counterfeit products affects brand and firm values. Counterfeits also affect firms’ investment choices and valuations. U.S. public firms suffer from lower brand asset values in countries that fail to adequately address counterfeit products in their markets. Conversely, counterfeit enforcement increases their brand and firm values.
  • Venture Capital Certification in Product Market: Evidence from P2P lending platforms

    Source: Emma Li, Li Liao, Zhengwei Wang, Hongyu Xiang
    Date Submitted: 03 Oct 2018
    Views: 193
    Downloads: 5
    Venture capital (VC) helps startups succeed, not only by providing financing, but also by "certifying" their value to entrepreneurs and public investors. VC also helps firms in other ways, for example by helping them access new potential customers. Does this effect extend to the startup's products and potential customers? This paper analyses 154 startup companies in the peer-to-peer lending space in China, to measure how significant the effect of VC investment is on the companies' trading volume and number of lenders.
  • Tokenomics: Dynamic Adoption and Valuation

    Source: Lin William Cong, Ye Li, Neng Wang
    Date Submitted: 07 Nov 2018
    Views: 3574
    Downloads: 122
    We provide a dynamic asset-pricing model of cryptocurrencies/tokens on platforms and highlight their roles on endogenous user adoption. Tokens facilitate transactions among decentralized users and allows them to capitalize future growth of promising platforms. Tokens thus can accelerate adoption, reduce user-base volatility, and improve welfare. Token price increases non-linearly in platform productivity, users’ heterogeneous transaction needs, and endogenous network size. The growth of user base starts slow, becomes explosive and volatile, and eventually tapers off. Our model can be extended to discuss platform token supply, cryptocurrency competition, and pricing assets under network externality.
  • The Dollar Profits to Insider Trading

    Source: Peter Cziraki, Jasmin Gider
    Date Submitted: 03 Oct 2018
    Views: 148
    Downloads: 3
    Insider trading tends to bring large percentage returns, but do insiders make large dollar profits on their trades? Does frequent trading give insiders high returns or large dollar profits? The authors create a new measure of insiders' intentions which predicts both returns and dollar profits, and identify a small subset of insiders whose profits significantly stand out.
  • Central Securities LLC Equity Research : Gobi JSC 

    Source: Bayarsaikhan Davaadorj, CFA
    Date Submitted: 10 Sep 2018
    Views: 692
    Downloads: 21
    Central Securities LLC introduces the equity valuation report of Gobi JSC. 
  • Acquiring Organizational Capital

    Source: Peixin Li, Weikai Li, Baolian Wang, Zilong Zhang
    Date Submitted: 11 Aug 2018
    Views: 223
    Downloads: 2
    Organizational capital is the accumulation and use of private information to enhance economic
    efficiency for a firm. Theory has argued that organizational capital is typically embodied in
    employees and the organizational structure, and is hard to transfer across organizations. In this
    paper, we study whether organizational capital is transferable across firms via mergers. The
    evidence shows that acquirers gain more from acquiring firms with higher organizational capital
    and acquirers are also willing to pay a higher premium for higher organizational capital targets.
    The evidence suggests that acquiring higher organizational capital targets creates synergies
    which are shared between acquirers and targets.
  • Non-Monotonic NPV Function Leads to Spurious NPV and Multiple IRR Problems

    Source: Kannapiran C. Arjunan
    Date Submitted: 21 Aug 2018
    Views: 196
    Downloads: 5

    Non-Monotonic NPV Function Leads to Spurious NPV and Multiple IRR Problems: A Critical analysis using a modified capital amortization method that Resolves These Problems

    This analysis is conducted using some popular non-normal net cash flow (NNCF) investment data available in public domain and other hypothetical NNCF data. The methodology is mainly based on capital amortization schedule (CAS) and modified CAS (MCAS) methods along with a comparison of the results with the common DCF method. The findings are summarised here:

    a. The problem of multiple IRR is caused by reinvestment income and the resultant non-monotonic NPV function. The CAS methods clearly indicate whether there is any reinvestment. Non-monotonic NPV function of NNCF investment leads to multiple IRRs or spurious IRRs, NPVs and MIRRs. With non-monotonic NPV functions the DCF estimated criteria are all spurious.

    b. The MCAS method eliminates the reinvestment thereby leads to monotonic NPV function and resolves the problem of reinvestment, spurious NPVs, MIRRs, IRRs and or multiple IRR.

    c. Neither the NPV nor the MIRR could resolve the problem of multiple IRR. With normal NCFs and some of the NNCFs also, there are no reinvestment at IRR or at hurdle rate as wrongly asserted in many published works.

    d. It is normal for the estimated IRR to be either ‘nil or zero or negative’ when the sum of net benefits or NCF is zero or negative. Such IRRs are consistent with NCF or net benefit. IRR of ‘zero or negative or no’ is not a weakness or problem but it reveals the real or consistent return.

    e. MCAS is an appropriate method to estimate the rate of return (IRR and NPV) for both normal NCF and NNCF and resolves the multiple IRR problem and eliminates spurious NPVs and MIRRS. The estimated IRR and NPV by MCAS method are consistent with NCF.

    f. Ultimately, IRR and NPV, estimated by MCAS, are the best criteria available to investment, project and cost-benefit analysis.

    In summary, NPV and IRR estimated by MCAS method are equally appropriate and therefore one cannot be the best substitute for the other. The multilateral and bilateral organizations and corporate managements may wish to revisit their recommendation to use the NPV only and not the IRR while dealing with multiple IRRs associated with NNCF investments.

  • The impact of dividend policy on price-earnings ratio: The role of conditional and nonlinear relationship

    Source: Boonlert Jitmaneeroj
    Date Submitted: 25 Jul 2018
    Views: 337
    Downloads: 23
    A common finding of previous studies using linear regression model is that the price-earnings (P/E) ratio is positively related to the dividend payout ratio. However, none of them investigates the condition under which the positive relationship holds. Therefore, this paper aims to examine the conditional and nonlinear relationship between P/E ratio and payout ratio.

  • Measuring causal relations and identifying critical drivers for corporate sustainability: The quadruple bottom line approach

    Source: Boonlert Jitmaneeroj
    Date Submitted: 04 Jul 2018
    Views: 277
    Downloads: 13
    This study investigates causal interrelations among the four pillars of corporate sustainability including environmental, social, governance and economic performance. Besides, this study identifies the critical pillars deserving of highest reform priorities for sustainable development.
  • The convexity of earnings yield: Does the dividend payout policy matter?

    Source: Boonlert Jitmaneeroj
    Date Submitted: 04 Jul 2018
    Views: 282
    Downloads: 14
    This paper uses a nonlinear model to examine the relationship between the earnings yield and the dividend payout ratio of international stock markets over the period 1995-2015. This paper produces new evidence indicating that the convexity of earnings yield has important implications for dividend policy decisions and equity investment choices. The increases in payout ratios have less influence on the earnings yield than the decreases in payout ratios. Furthermore, the earnings yields of firms with low payout ratios get larger effect from the changes in payout ratios than firms with high payout ratios.
  • AsianFA_The Effect of Shareholder Proposals on Accrual-based and Real Earnings Management

    Source: Jeffery Ng, Hong Wu, Weihuan Zhai, Jing Zhao
    Date Submitted: 06 Jun 2018
    Views: 284
    Downloads: 5
    Shareholder activism is an important source of corporate governance. In this study, we examine the effect of shareholder-sponsored governance proposals on earnings management. We find that on average both accrual-based and real earnings management diminish after the proposals are passed. There is, however, significant variation in the effects of different types of proposals. For those focusing on changing governance structures (e.g., board independence), we find reductions in both types of earnings management. However, for proposals aimed at improving financial reporting (auditor independence and clawback), we find that accrual-based earnings management decreases while real earnings management increases, suggesting a substitution effect after the accrual-based earnings management is constrained. Finally, for proposals that seek to link pay to performance, we find that both accrual-based and real earnings management increase, consistent with managerial incentives to boost performance. Overall, our study demonstrates that shareholder proposals to improve corporate governance can affect earnings management and that the effect can vary depending on the nature of the proposals.
  • AsianFA: Off-Balance Sheet Securitization, Bank Lending, and Corporate Innovation

    Source: Yiwei Dou, Zhaoxia Xu
    Date Submitted: 31 May 2018
    Views: 327
    Downloads: 10
    We investigate how corporate innovation is influenced by banks' off-balance sheet securitization. Exploiting a recent mandate that removes the off-balance sheet status of some securitized assets, we find a reduction in innovation for firms  borrowing from affected banks. The reduction is concentrated among firms whose banks experience more downward pressure on regulatory capital ratios and greater market discipline, and firms more dependent on external financing. Affected banks raised loan spreads and cut loan amounts after the mandate. The results suggest that off-balance sheet treatment of securitization has a real effect on firm innovation through bank lending.
  • AsianFA Why do distressed firms acquire?

    Source: Eden Quxian Zhang
    Date Submitted: 26 May 2018
    Views: 1451
    Downloads: 61
    In recent years, acquisitions made by distressed firms have become economically important. This paper explores the rationale behind such acquisitions using a natural experiment. Exploiting a recent tax change, which reduces debt restructuring costs for certain creditors and decreases bankruptcy risk, I identify the causal link between financial distress and acquisitions. Upon an exogenous reduction in the probability of bankruptcy, distressed firms react by cutting 41% of cash spending on acquisitions. Moreover, distressed firms refocus by decreasing 63% of the transaction value of diversifying acquisitions. The evidence supports the diversification hypothesis, which states that distressed firms acquire to diversify bankruptcy risk, rather than the growth opportunity hypothesis, which states that distressed firms acquire to capture external growth opportunities and revive growth. These findings indicate a new effect of financial distress on investment decisions, that is, the pressure to meet debt obligations creates an incentive for firms to diversify via acquisitions.
  • AsianFA  - Be Nice to Stakeholders: The Effect of Economic Policy Uncertainty on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Source: Jian Zhang, Ji (George) Wu, Dongmin Kong, Ni Qin
    Date Submitted: 29 May 2018
    Views: 262
    Downloads: 6
    This study examines how firms react to economic policy uncertainty by investing in corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a Chinese sample, we find a positive and significant relationship between economic policy uncertainty and a firm’s CSR investment. A firm tends to signal their stakeholders to convey that it honor implicit contracts through investing in CSR activities during high uncertainty period. Our findings are more significant in firms in low social trust regions and in firms connected to arrested corrupt officials. Results are robust to a variety of model specifications and endogeneity problems.
  • AsianFA - How Does Media Affect Earnings Management? New Evidence from Commonality in News 

    Source: Chen Chen, Ngoc Tao, Thanh Huynh
    Date Submitted: 29 May 2018
    Views: 204
    Downloads: 6
    Building on the theoretical framework of Heinle and Verrecchia (2016), this paper empirically investigates whether and how commonality in news media can influence managers’ incentives to engage in earnings management. We find strong evidence that news commonality reduces managerial incentives to manage earnings. Employing a quasi-natural experiment, we provide plausibly causal evidence that the media can curb earnings management via reporting correlated news between a firm and other firms in the market. This effect is more pronounced among firms that are similar to each other and whose information environment is opaque. We further find that firms’ stocks with higher news commonality have smaller earnings response coefficients. These results together suggest that shareholders rely less on a firm’s earnings report when they can learn about the firm’s value using the information of other firms, thereby reducing the benefits for managers to engage in earnings management.
  • AsianFA - The Effect of Board Structure on Firm Performance - New Evidence from Product Market Conditions

    Source: Onur Kemal Tosun, Danmo Lin, Xiaoyuan Hu
    Date Submitted: 25 May 2018
    Views: 239
    Downloads: 1
    We study the effect of corporate board structure on firm performance under different product
    market conditions. Using customer-supplier links to identify exogenous downstream demand
    shocks, we find that board independence has a more significant effect on firm performance when
    the firm-specific product demand drops, compared to other demand conditions. The results are
    more pronounced when a firm is smaller, experiences higher growth, or has higher stock price
    volatility. We further show that our documented effect of board independence only prevails
    if the firm faces medium level of product market competition, or if the negative shock is at
    a medium level. We provide suggestive evidence supporting the view that it is the board's
    monitoring function that drives the effectiveness of board independence in bad times, rather
    than its advisory function.
  • Better disclosure-how to judge material items on IFRS Financial Statements?

    Source: Chie Mitsui
    Date Submitted: 11 May 2018
    Views: 1450
    Downloads: 47
    We have seen cases where information necessary for analysis are not disclosed in the breakdown of operating expenses, and a big number is disclosed, without its breakdown table in the footnote, as accounting item named "other“, in the IFRS financial statements.
    There is a disclosure option in expenses disclosure in IFRS, and companies think that they can choose one. By Function and By Nature, or their mixed, disclosed as one detailed table from the sum of SGA. In this case, it becomes difficult to understand detailed table, and "the other" becomes big number. We sent an opinion that threshold should be introducedto make disclosure more granular, and specific accounting items should be addedon IAS 1, to IASB before. 
    But this time, we discussed at the same time, some investors believe that most important disclosure should be focused on what is material for company, not threshold, not certain items.
  • Distributed ledgers and ICOs 

    Source: Maggie McGhee, Director, Professional Insights, ACCA
    Date Submitted: 10 May 2018
    Views: 3761
    Downloads: 59
    Distributed ledgers and ICOs - presentation deck for ACCA - CFA Institute VIP Luncheon on 14 May 2018 which covers:

    - Using Distributed ledgers for the right reasons
    - Introduction of crytocurrencies and ICO activities over the past years
    - Risks for investors, regulators and the economies
    - Key considerations for the future

  • Safeguards against the Introduction of a Dual-Class Shares Structure

    Source: Rocky Tung, Mary Leung, CFA
    Date Submitted: 17 May 2018
    Views: 3965
    Downloads: 82

    Safeguards against the Introduction of a Dual-Class Shares Structure
    As revealed in a survey conducted in Asia Pacific by CFA Institute in March, a majority (60%) of the 450-plus respondents have not had any experience investing in firms with a DCS structure, which signalled the urgency for and need to educate investors and the general public on the implications of DCS structures.

    The survey, “Dual-Class Shares and the Demand for Safeguards,” revealed that respondents in the region were divided when asked whether DCS structures should be introduced to the market, with 53% opposing the introduction and 47% in favour. Regardless of their position on DCS, almost all (97%) respondents considered it necessary to enact additional safeguards if DCS structures are permitted.

    Among different possible safeguards, more than 90% of respondents considered it appropriate to implement enhanced mandatory corporate governance measures as well as time- and event-based sunset provisions, such as automatic conversion of shares with super voting rights to ordinary voting rights. Specifically, 94% of respondents considered it appropriate to introduce a time-based sunset provision; among which, 91% of such respondents considered it appropriate to convert shares with super voting rights to ordinary shares within 10 years. Separately, 93% of respondents considered introducing a maximum voting differential appropriate; 63% of these respondents found a 2:1 maximum voting differential optimal.

  • Social Stability and Resource Allocation within Business Groups

    Source: Haikun Zhu
    Date Submitted: 01 May 2018
    Views: 317
    Downloads: 5
    In this paper, I study the role of Chinese state-owned enterprises in address social unrest.
  • Flash Note on Dutch-Bangla Bank Limited

    Source: Mohammad Rehan Kabir
    Date Submitted: 26 Apr 2018
    Views: 388
    Downloads: 28
    Dutch Bangla Bank is a 2nd generation bank that provides conventional banking services. Their Mobile Financial Service i.e. ‘Rocket’ is the number 2 MFS in BD.
  • AsianFA Political Connection and the Walking Dead: Evidence from China’s Privately Owned Firms

    Source: Wenyu Zhu, Qing He
    Date Submitted: 16 Apr 2018
    Views: 262
    Downloads: 1
    Using a sample of privately owned listed firms in China, we document that firms’ political connections have a positive effect on their likelihood of becoming insolvent and inefficient (which we call zombies or zombie firms). The results are more pronounced for firms that are located in regions with extensive government intervention or weak institutional environment. In addition, for firms without political connections, the presence of zombie firms has negative spillover effects on the investment and productivity of healthy firms in the same industry. In other words, as the percentages of zombies rise at the industry level, healthy firms without political connection in the same industry have slower investment growth and lower productivity. Curiously, such negative spillover effects are not observed for firms with political connections.
  • AsianFA Why Don’t Issuers Get Upset about IPO Underpricing: Evidence from the Loan Market

    Date Submitted: 02 Apr 2018
    Views: 268
    Downloads: 4
    This paper links IPO underpricing with the benefit of going public from the loan market.
    Specifically, we show that IPO underpricing is associated with significantly lower borrowing
    costs of the issuer after going public. The average reduction in the post-IPO loan interest spread
    for firms with IPO underpricing is about 165% larger than that for firms without underpricing.
    This larger reduction in borrowing costs amounts to about US $1.2 billion per year for our
    sample firms, which is substantial relative to the total amount of money left on the table ($22.1
    billion). The results are not driven by important factors, such as price revision, that documented
    in the literature affect IPO underpricing, and are robust to employing exogenous variations of
    underpricing, indicating that underpricing plays a unique role in reducing post-IPO borrowing
    costs. Our findings are consistent with the marketing value of underpricing, and highlight an
    important trade-off faced by IPO firms: although underpricing incurs a direct loss by leaving
    money on the table, it brings indirect benefits from other markets.
  • 'AsianFA' Financial Flexibility Beyond Earnings Management: Do Pension Accounting Assumptions Create Shareholder Values?

    Source: Shingo Goto, Noriyoshi Yanase
    Date Submitted: 01 Apr 2018
    Views: 252
    Downloads: 5
    While firms often use pension return assumptions to manage earnings, they may also use high return assumptions to signal lower pension contributions to increase internal cash flows available for profitable investments. Benefits of such internal funding can overweigh forgone tax benefits. Our cross-sectional evidence suggests that pension return assumptions can exert real effects beyond earnings management, as they predict significant increases in operating cash flows, fixed capital investments, and R&D expenditures. The stock market places significant values on pension return assumptions beyond the valuation of management forecasts of earnings, especially among firms with low profitability or large pension underfunding.
  • AsianFA_Management Connectedness and Corporate Investment

    Source: Man Duy Pham, Jing Yu, Mahmoud Agha
    Date Submitted: 27 May 2018
    Views: 378
    Downloads: 2
    This item is working paper that has been accepted for presentation at Asian Finance Association Annual Meeting in Tokyo, Japan 2018. It is an empirical work that links one of emerging facet of corporate governance research to corporate investment decisions.
  • AsianFA - Financial Conglomeration, IPO Underwriting, and Allocation in Japan

    Source: Akitoshi Ito, Takato Hiraki, Toshiki Honda, Ming Liu
    Date Submitted: 05 Apr 2018
    Views: 286
    Downloads: 1
    Financial conglomeration has created full and partial universal banking services in the industry. Using a sample of 779 Japanese IPOs over the 2002-2012 period, we find a strong retail orientation in new share allocation. The most complete universal banking form of underwriting neither advantages nor disadvantages investors in the underwriter’s affiliated mutual funds. Another form of underwriting through non-bank lenders yields a long-run advantage to investors in their affiliated funds. These results are consistent with the information advantage hypothesis on IPO share allocation under the strong regulation overreach assumption. Meantime, we find significant evidence of conflicts of interest in institutional allocation by the underwriters of non-main commercial banks. The result also shows that pre-IPO main banks do not withdraw from their loan commitment to the IPO issuer though reducing the amount of loans in any aftermarket performance condition. Bank-centered financial conglomeration has overall helped many small firms go public and stay long in the publicly traded market.
  • AsianFA Optimal Short-Termism

    Source: Dirk Hackbarth, Alejandro Rivera
    Date Submitted: 28 Mar 2018
    Views: 237
    Downloads: 1
    This paper studies incentives in a dynamic contracting framework of a levered firm. In particular, the manager selects long-term and short-term efforts, while shareholders choose initially optimal leverage and ex-post optimal default policies. There are three results. First, shareholders trade off the benefits of short-termism (current cash flows) against benefits of higher growth from long-term effort (future cash flows), but because shareholders only split the latter with bondholders, they find short-termism ex-post optimal. Second, bright (grim) growth prospects imply lower (higher) optimal levels of short-termism. Third, the endogenous default threshold rises with the substitutability of tasks and, for a positive correlation of shocks, the endogenous default threshold is hump-shaped in the volatility of permanent shocks, but increases monotonically with the volatility of transitory shocks. Finally, we quantify agency costs of short-term and long-term effort, cost of short-termism, effects of investor time horizons, credit spreads, and risk-shifting.
  • AsianFA Stock Repurchases and Corporate Control: Evidence from Japan

    Source: Hideaki Miyajima, Ryo Ogawa, Julian Franks, Colin Mayer
    Date Submitted: 28 Mar 2018
    Views: 258
    Downloads: 2
    This paper represents the most comprehensive study to date of the control impact of stock repurchases, using Japanese data. It analyses the determinants of the three stages of repurchases, their holding in treasury stock or cancellation, and their subsequent resale in the market and to private purchasers. It evaluates the impact of the three stages on share prices and their overall effect on ownership changes. The evidence consistently points to control motivations of repurchases in Japan in response to the collapse of cross holdings during the ‘lost decade’. It stands in marked contrast to the financial motives that drive repurchases in the US and the UK. 
  • AsianFA - Is good governance priced? An examination of listed firms from OECD equity markets

    Source: Kate Phylaktis
    Date Submitted: 27 Mar 2018
    Views: 247
    Downloads: 3
    AsianFA - Is good governance priced? An examination of listed firms from OECD equity markets
  • Asian FA: Power of tournament incentives: Evidence from Japanese corporate boards

    Source: Konari Uchida, Jeffrey L. Coles
    Date Submitted: 26 Mar 2018
    Views: 264
    Downloads: 0
    This working paper is accepted for presentation in the 30th Asian Finance Association Annual Meeting. 
  • AsianFA - Forgiveness versus financing: The determinants and impact of SME debt forbearance in Japan

    Source: Yukihiro Yasuda
    Date Submitted: 03 Apr 2018
    Views: 270
    Downloads: 2
    This paper empirically examines the impact of Japan’s debt forbearance policies with regard to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) stipulated in the “Act concerning Temporary Measures to Facilitate Financing for SMEs.” Using unique Japanese firm survey data that identify firms that received “financing” (such as through the deferral of debt repayments) and firms that received “debt forgiveness” (such as through a reduction in principal and/or interest), we examine the determinants and the effects of debt forbearance to test the theoretical predictions of Krugman’s (1988) “financing vs. forgiving a debt overhang” analysis. We find, first, that banks choose debt forgiveness for firms that are more creditworthy and more profitable, which is consistent with the theory of debt overhang. Second, among firms that received debt forbearance, those that had received debt forgiveness had better access to new loans and showed superior ex-post performance than those that received financing, which is also consistent with the theory of debt overhang. Third, compared to firms that had not received any debt forbearance, firms that had received financing were more leveraged and exhibited worse performance, especially those whose forborne loans were covered by public credit guarantees, while firms that had received debt forgiveness exhibited better performance, especially those without public credit guarantees. This suggests that the effectiveness of the SME forbearance policy is adversely affected by the moral hazard generated by public credit guarantee programs.
  • AsianFA - Transforming the Management and Governance of Private Family Firms: The Role of Financial Intermediaries

    Source: Thomas J. Chemmanur, Boston College, Gang Hu, Hong Kong PolyU, Chaopeng Wu, Xiemen University
    Date Submitted: 24 Mar 2018
    Views: 219
    Downloads: 3
    We use Rajan’s (2012) theory of entrepreneurial firms to develop testable hypotheses and to empirically analyze how venture capitalists (VCs) help to standardize the corporate governance and management of family firms prior to an IPO. We find that VC-backing causes family members to depart more from top management positions and causes family control rights, cash-flow rights, and the separation between them to drop more relative to non-VC-backed family firms. Further, these effects are stronger when VCs have greater bargaining power or board representation. The above changes in management and governance yield correspondingly higher IPO firm valuations and post-IPO operating performance.
  • AsianFA Be Nice to Stakeholders: The Effect of Economic Policy Uncertainty on Corporate Social Responsibility

    Source: Jian Zhang, Dongmin Kong, JI Wu
    Date Submitted: 23 Mar 2018
    Views: 224
    Downloads: 1
    This study examines how firms react to economic policy uncertainty by investing in corporate social responsibility (CSR). Using a Chinese sample, we find a positive and significant relationship between economic policy uncertainty and a firm’s CSR investment. A firm tends to signal their stakeholders to convey that it honors implicit contracts through investing in CSR activities during high uncertainty period. Our findings are more significant in firms in low social trust regions and in firms connected to arrested corrupt officials. Results are robust to a variety of model specifications and endogeneity problems.
  • AsianFA_OWY - Does foreign ownership explain company export and innovation decisions? Evidence from Japan

    Source: OKUBO, Toshihiro,WAGNER, Alexander F.,YAMADA, Kazuo
    Date Submitted: 03 Apr 2018
    Views: 275
    Downloads: 3
    Does foreign ownership explain company export and innovation decisions? Evidence from Japan
  • Equity Valuation Report on Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited

    Source: Asaduzzaman Ashik
    Date Submitted: 22 Mar 2018
    Views: 493
    Downloads: 41
    Berger Paints Bangladesh Limited is the largest paint manufacturer and distributor in Bangladesh. Berger Paints manufactures world class paints for all kinds of substances and also provides different support services with more than 250 years of rich heritage. Louis Berger from Germany started dye and pigment making business in 1760. The company was introduced as Louis Berger & Sons Limited.  The company grew and expanded rapidly with a strong reputation for excellence in innovation and entrepreneurship. Production of dyes and pigments evolved into production of paints and coatings, which till today, remains the core business of Berger. Berger expanded globally by establishing branches all over the world and through mergers and acquisitions with other leading paint and coating manufacturing companies. Berger Robbialac, the flagship brand of Berger Paints, is the number one paint brand in Bangladesh. The product line of Berger Paints includes decorative, industrial, marine, power coating, adhesive, wood coating, textile paints and construction chemicals.
  • AsianFA - Credit crunch and timing of initial public offerings

    Source: Konari Uchida, Pengda Fan
    Date Submitted: 03 Apr 2018
    Views: 310
    Downloads: 4
    We show evidence that firms with more outstanding short-term debt are more likely to go public in bear markets than firms with less short-term debt. Importantly, this finding is evident for firms going public after a reduction of total bank credits in the loan market. The result is robust to control for endogeneity concerns, selection biases, and alternative stories. Bear market IPOs repay more short-term debt during the IPO year than other IPOs do, and have lower offering prices and proceeds. Those results suggest that a credit crunch significantly affects timing and costs of IPOs.
  • AsianFA Common Institutional Ownership and Crash Risk    

    Source: C.S. Agnes Cheng, Jing Xie, Yuxiang Zhong
    Date Submitted: 20 Mar 2018
    Views: 308
    Downloads: 8
    We find that crash risk of a firm is positively correlated with crash risk of other firms that share common institutional blockholders (CIBs). Using exogenous formations of CIBs around annual Russell index reconstitutions, we find that crash risk of two firms, which do not share CIBs in the pre-reconstitution period, comoves more in the post-reconstitution period when they share CIBs than the pre-reconstitution period. The effect is mainly driven by peers that have similar level of stock liquidity, implying that CIBs induce commonality of crash risk through trading. The effect is robust to a battery of alternative empirical designs and is unlikely to be explained by alternative stories based on similarity in firm fundamentals, industry affiliation, and headquarter location. Overall, our paper provides a novel source of variations in crash risk and highlights the role of institutional investors in asset prices. 
  • NZFC - Corporate Governance in Mutual Funds: The Impact of Holdings Disclosure

    Source: Russell Gregory-Allen, Hatice Ozer-Balli
    Date Submitted: 19 Mar 2018
    Views: 249
    Downloads: 2
    Portfolio holdings disclosure has been a controversial issue for many years; SEC disclosure requirements in the US were relaxed from quarterly to semi-annual in 1985, then in 2004 returned to a quarterly mandate. Even today, some countries do not require holdings to be disclosed, and some are considering changing their laws to make it compulsory; New Zealand has made this change for KiwiSaver funds, and Australia is considering it. Further, in the US, there are current discussions about whether hedge funds should come under increased scrutiny, and be subject to more disclosure. In the last few years there have been several papers examining various aspects of the impact of disclosure – front-running, copycat trading, and reporting lag, in addition to the simple return performance differential. Most of these studies have either examined the before and after 2004 SEC rule change, or compare SEC disclosure vs. another disclosure mechanism. Our study examines the impact on fund return of disclosure in two ways. First, there are two markets where disclosure is not required but some funds choose to disclose – Australia and New Zealand. Second, in New Zealand in 2013 KiwiSaver funds became required to disclose top holding. The first affords us a natural experiment to compare funds that disclose with those that do not, and the second allows us to compare the same funds before and after the disclosure requirement. Based on some preliminary examinations and an earlier version of this paper, we expect to find, contrary to arguments against disclosure, that returns are not harmed by disclosure.
  • The cash flow sensitivity of cash dividends in different dividend taxation systems

    Source: Ratheshan Manickaratnam
    Date Submitted: 08 Dec 2017
    Views: 320
    Downloads: 3
    This paper investigates the cash flow sensitivity of cash dividends in different cash dividend taxation systems.  Using a cross-country study, we find that a firm's dividend policy in a single dividend taxation system (relative to a double dividend taxation system) is more sensitive to cash flow as measured by the propensity to initiate a cash dividend, propensity to pay a cash dividend, and in the size of the cash dividend. The cash flow sensitivity of cash  dividends is asymmetric -- firms in single taxation systems more aggressively adjust dividend policy when confronted with negative rather than positive cash flows.  Our findings are qualitatively identical before and after the 2003 dividend tax cut in the United States.
  • Do Corporate Managers Manipulate Disclosure through Changing 10-K File Size?

    Source: Quan Gan, Buhui Qiu
    Date Submitted: 05 Dec 2017
    Views: 415
    Downloads: 0
    File size is a simple measure of disclosure document readability. This study shows that 10-K file size change has negative and robust cross-sectional stock return predictability. A hedge portfolio based on 10-K file size change generates an abnormal return spread of more than 3% per annum. 10-K file size change also has negative predictability on future cash flow news and the return predictability of 10-K file size change reflects mainly its information content on future cash flow news. Consistent with disclosure manipulation, the return predictability of 10-K file size change is found to be stronger for firms with positive file size changes, high information asymmetry, or low recent investor attention, and it derives from the discretionary component of file size change that reflects mainly managerial disclosure discretion. Overall, the findings strongly suggest that corporate managers engage in disclosure manipulation through changing 10-K file size.
  • Too little, too late? Role of credit rating agencies in the Amtek AUTO default

    Source: Shagun Thukral
    Date Submitted: 29 Nov 2017
    Views: 419
    Downloads: 0
    In late August 2015, the sudden downgrade and eventual default of Amtek AUTO Ltd (Amtek) on its debentures upset mutual fund investors and regulators. Questions were raised about the credit rating agencies and their lack of timely action as well as about the independent credit analysis followed by fund houses to protect the interests of investors. One such investor, Suresh Nair, decided to gather all possible available information on Amtek to determine whether it was sheer negligence on the part of all parties involved or if Amtek was in fact in a situation of sudden distress. The case seeks to highlight the credit analysis process, while looking out for red flags to identify potential default or financial stress in a company.
  • Effects of Chinese Imports on U.S. Firm Innovation: Evidence from the US-China Permanent Normal Trade Relation

    Source: Yuxi Wang, Huasheng Gao
    Date Submitted: 28 Nov 2017
    Views: 503
    Downloads: 3
    We examine the effect of United States’ conferral of Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) on China—a policy that eliminates the uncertainty of future tariff increases associated with Chinese goods— on U.S. firm innovation. We find a significant increase in the number of patents and patent citations for U.S. firms that are affected by PNTR relative to firms that are not affected. This result is stronger for industries that experience a greater increase in Chinese goods following PNTR. Overall, our evidence suggests that Chinese imports induce U.S firms to invest more in innovative technology. 
  • Explaining Downward-rigid CEO Compensation: An Information Asymmetry Perspective

    Source: Yiqing Lu
    Date Submitted: 28 Nov 2017
    Views: 324
    Downloads: 0
    CEO compensation rarely gets cut, and almost every component of it increased in early 2000. I consider a two-period contracting problem in which a board privately knows its CEO's matching quality with the firm that changes over time. The board faces a trade-off: Revealing good information makes the CEO work harder, but it is costly. To save the information revelation cost, the board commits to a back-loaded compensation plan that features only upward adjustments in fixed and performance-based pay. This paper also considers extensions in which CEOs have transferable skills and sheds light on bonus caps and compensation disclosure policies.
  • CROWDFUNDING MALAYSIA'S SHARING ECONOMY - Alternative Financing for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

    Source: Dr Raymond Madden, Chief Executive Officer, Asian Institute of Finance, Kee Gek Choo, General Manager, Strategy, Policy Development and Research, Asian Institute of Finance
    Date Submitted: 27 Nov 2017
    Views: 4736
    Downloads: 94

    Although a relatively new phenomenon in Malaysia, crowdfunding has been greeted by the government and market alike as a part of disruptive financial technologies (FinTech) that add impetus to Malaysia’s move towards a 21st century digital economy. With the government’s policy commitment, financial assistance, regulatory supervision and other supportive measures, crowdfunding is expected to accelerate in the near future as a critical source of alternative financing for SMEs to create new employment, enhance social participation and help Malaysia adjust to the fast-shifting dynamics of the global economic and social landscape. In spite of its promising prospects, there are gaps in awareness of what crowdfunding is and the opportunities and risks it presents. There is a shortage of actionable information on: • the role of crowdfunding in the policy, business and financing environment for SMEs; • the level of understanding of crowdfunding among the public and small entrepreneurs; • their interest and willingness to participate in crowdfunded projects/activities; and • the effectiveness of the national ecosystem for crowdfunding. This report addresses these gaps to help realise the full potential of crowdfunding in Malaysia. It is based on a two-phase research study. The first consisted of a quantitative survey of the public and small entrepreneurs within the Klang Valley, and the second involved desk research and consultations with crowdfunding platform operators, national agencies/institutions, sophisticated investors and start-up entrepreneurs. The report describes a vibrant crowdfunding environment emerging in Malaysia following Bank Negara Malaysia’s policy support for alternative financing, and the Securities Commission Malaysia’s introduction of regulatory frameworks for equity crowdfunding (ECF) in 2015 and peer-to-peer crowdfunding (P2P) in 2016. Since crowdfunding continues to evolve rapidly around the world and is still at an early stage in the country, the insights offered by this report are an initial but comprehensive snapshot of the local crowdfunding environment and its future growth potential.
  • AFM - Incentive Fees: Do they bond underwriters and IPO issuers? 

    Source: Abdulkadir Mohamed
    Date Submitted: 27 Nov 2017
    Views: 364
    Downloads: 6
    We use a sample of 680 Hong Kong Initial public offering (IPO) firms  to examine the impact of incentive fees in mitigating conflicts of interest between the IPO firms and their underwriters. We find that the granting incentive fees to to the underwriters results in lower listing costs and high IPO proceeds. We also find IPOs that are large, not cash constrained at the time listing and those underwritten by reputable underwriters are more likely to offer incentive fees. Further tests show that incentive fees are granted when the market is volatile, but the average listing costs as a proportion of gross proceeds is 9.328% compared to 12.293% for IPOs that do not provide incentives to their underwriters. The listing costs decrease by 6.724% specifically for IPOs that offer incentive fees.   Overall, the evidence shows that large Hong Kong IPOs can minimise their listing costs and maximise their proceeds by offering incentive fees to their underwriters as part of their compensation package
  • Can SDGs Shape the Future of Corporate Disclosure?

    Source: Libby Bernick
    Date Submitted: 21 Nov 2017
    Views: 681
    Downloads: 0
    Businesses are showing increasing interest in using the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to inform and enhance their social and environmental programs and ultimately their business strategies.
  • Predicting Credit Rating Changes Conditional on Economic Strength

    Source: Julia Sawici, Jun Zhou, Yonggan Zhao
    Date Submitted: 17 Nov 2017
    Views: 373
    Downloads: 0
    Predicting Credit Rating Changes Conditional on Economic Strength
    Julia Sawicki, Jun Zhou and Yonggan Zhao
    Extended Abstract 
    This paper addresses a fundamental credit analysis question: what is the probability that a firm's rating will be upgraded, downgraded or unchanged for a specific rating cohort and state of the economy? We develop a new structural model for predicting credit rating changes using both financial accounting variables and macroeconomic indicators. Economic strength (contraction / expansion) is predicted with a set of systematic factors in a Markov regime-switching model. Measures of firm-specific business and financial risk are used in a multinomial logistic regression model to estimate transition probabilities (upgrade, stay or downgrade) conditional on the predicted state of the economy. Tests of statistical differences in probabilities indicate that the likelihood of upgrade and downgrade are asymmetric across regimes; general probability of a downgrade during a recession is nearly twice the expansion downgrade probability; up-grade probabilities are relatively stable. 
    In addition to developing a sophisticated predictive model, our work sheds light on a major (and poorly-understood) concern related to broad economic ratings' determinants: the pro-cyclical nature of credit ratings. Ratings that are particularly harsh (lenient) in weak (strong) economic conditions can exacerbate tightening (loosening) of credit, contributing to volatility and uncertainty in financial markets. This potential destabilizing impact of ratings changes draws considerable attention of regulators and policy makers. Our estimates of upgrade and downgrade probabilities in expansions and recessions provide insight at the policy level and a valuable analytical tool for investors. 
    Our model is an important contribution to the literature. Research devoted to identifying the determinants of ratings has focussed primarily on entity-specific measures of operating performance and financial condition, such as profitability and leverage. While link between credit risk and macro-economic is clear (and empirical evidence points to the potential to improve ratings predictions by modelling systematic conditions), empirical work has proved wanting. The standard approach using linear regression analysis is not appropriate for predicting changes in credit ratings.[1] Our model captures macroeconomic states with regime-switching model that offers two important advantages: results are not specification dependent and the model is forward-looking in that ratings transitions are predicted contingent on a prediction about the state of the economy. Forward-looking investment decisions are based on future credit quality, including estimates of how likely a firm's rating will be upgraded or downgraded under various economic states. The ordered logistic regression analysis with the economic strength conducted in this paper provides this information. 
    Tests of statistical differences indicate that the transition probabilities in contractions are different from those in expansions. The nature of these differences largely depends upon whether the issue is investment or non-investment grade. In general, it is much easier for junk bonds to be upgraded than investment grade bonds, regardless of economic state. This is not the case with downgrades. Notwithstanding CCC and below, investment and non-investment grades share similar downgrade probabilities in expansion (ranging from 2 to 4 percent). The probability of being downgraded jumps for non-investment grade issues in contractions to a range of 5 to 11 percent. Comparing transition probabilities between states and within rating we find that investment grade issues tend to exhibit similar upgrade probabilities in both expansion and contraction, whereas downgrade probabilities are somewhat higher during contractions than during expansions. Regarding non-investment grade issues, it seems that the 'dogs' get a boost during expansions with a much higher probability of being upgraded. The differences become very pronounced as the rating falls (for, example CCC contraction upgrade probability of 3.8 percent triples to 14 percent in an expansion). The chance of a downgrade during contractions is much higher than in expansions, almost doubling in many cases. 
    While these tests provide strong evidence consistent with a procyclical nature of rating changes, an important question remains. Does the evidence point to harsher (more lenient) ratings criteria applied during weak (strong) economic conditions? Or is it indicative of permanent, rather than temporary, changes in firm-level creditworthiness? To develop some insight into this question, average changes in firm-level credit risk measures are calculated conditional on economic strength.  Preliminary analysis points towards evidence of distinct ratings criteria changes across regimes, consistent with procyclicality. This is an empirical question and the subject of further inquiry.
    By the very nature of the subjectivity involved in analyst-driven, forward-looking ratings, identifying the determinants of credit ratings will never be an exact science. However, our understanding credit ratings, in particular the factors that prompt rating changes, is vital to the well-functioning of capital markets. Our results provide insight into the stability of credit ratings. CRA publications and empirical evidence point to ratings that seek a balance between some continuum of stability (immunity from cycles) and accuracy (changing in response to changes in both firm and macroeconomic conditions). Can we be more precise in our understanding of where they might lie on a through-the-cycle and point-in-time continuum? In particular, to what extent does rating' determination reflect changes reflect the state of the maro-economy? This paper is a step towards answers to these questions which are of critical importance to financial markets, including investors, portfolio managers, corporations and regulators.  
    [1] Empirical modelling is particularly challenging because the parameters or functional forms are unstable, making it difficult to capture the complex nature of the interaction between the state of the economy and credit risk.  Figlewski et al (2013) demonstrate that results are extremely sensitive to model specification, choice of macro-variables, averages versus lagged versus contemporaneous, and time period. Estimating various specifications and they find
    that significance and macro-variable coefficient signs depend upon which variables are included in the model.
  • Family Controlled Firms in APAC: 10 Focus Areas for Investor Due Diligence

    Date Submitted: 07 Nov 2017
    Views: 16104
    Downloads: 134
    CFA Institute has recently released a 112-page report Corporate Governance far Asian Publicly Listed Family-Controlled Firms which identifies the strengths and challenges of the publicly listed family firm model in Asia. The full report is available at:

    The report is aimed at institutional and retail investors and outlines areas to focus due diligence when investing in family-controlled companies in Asia.

    In the attached guide we take highlights from the report to identify the top 10 issues that investor may encounter when investing in family firms and offer steps to mitigating those risks.
  • AFM - How do Firms Finance Investments in Markets with Business Groups? Evidence from Acquisitions by India’s Listed Firms

    Source: Varun Jindal, Rama Seth
    Date Submitted: 28 Oct 2017
    Views: 721
    Downloads: 9
    We propose a new order of financing investments based on the considerations of control and financial constraints in markets with business groups. We base our analysis on a sample of 320 acquisitions, one of the largest forms of investments, made by India’s publicly listed firms from 1998 through 2016. We test the relative propensity of group-affiliated firms as well as that of standalone (non-affiliated) firms to finance their investments with stock on one extreme, and either cash or debt on the other extreme. We find that group-affiliated bidders have the highest propensity to finance their investments with stock when taking over firms affiliated with the same business group (within-group acquisitions), followed by standalone firms making acquisitions (standalone acquisitions). Finally, group-affiliated bidders acquiring either standalone firms or firms not affiliated with their group (outside-group acquisitions) have the lowest propensity to finance their investments with stock.

    [Paper Submission to 2017 Auckland Finance Meeting for Consideration for CFA Institute Asia-Pacific Capital Markets Research Award]
  • AFM - Financial Development, Macro Uncertainty and Saving-Cash Flow Sensitivity

    Source: Alexander Vadilyev
    Date Submitted: 26 Oct 2017
    Views: 446
    Downloads: 9
    This paper shows that (1) the sensitivity of corporate saving to cash flow does not systematically decrease with a country’s financial development, and (2) the sensitivity systematically increases with macro uncertainty. The first result occurs because income variability matters more for saving than external finance constraints and because income variability is strongly positively correlated with financial development. The second result occurs because macro uncertainty magnifies the effect of external finance constraints on corporate saving, raises the variability of income flows, and reduces the attractiveness of investment opportunities. Therefore, contrary to previous evidence, saving-cash flow sensitivity cannot be directly used to test for the benefits of financial (and institutional) development, but it can be used to assess the impact of uncertainty on firms’ demand for internal liquidity.
  • White Knights or Machiavellians? Understanding the motivation for reverse takeovers in Singapore and Thailand.

    Source: Pantisa Pavabutr
    Date Submitted: 16 Oct 2017
    Views: 1372
    Downloads: 23
    We analyze the characteristics, return, and financial performance of 47 RTO sample firms in Singapore and Thailand between 2007-2015.  Given the existing regulatory screens imposed by Singapore and Thai exchanges, we cannot find evidence that firms choosing to list via RTOs signals a separating equilibrium of low type firms seeking a listing short-cut.  We argue that RTOs should not be evaluated as a choice of listing per se, but as part of the parcel of long-term corporate strategy.  Analysis in this paper yields important in sights on reverse takeovers from both investor and regulator perspectives.
  • FDU - Political Connections, Government Subsidies, and Capital Misallocation: Evidence from China

    Source: Zilong Zhang, Shuang Jin
    Date Submitted: 30 Sep 2017
    Views: 662
    Downloads: 6
    A research paper submitted to the Finance Down Under 2018 Building on the Best from the Cellars of Finance, for the consideration of the CFAM-ARX Award.
  • The importance of trust for inter-organizational relationships: A study of interbank market practices in a crisis

    Source: Alexander Rad
    Date Submitted: 28 Sep 2017
    Views: 778
    Downloads: 0
    The paper presents crisis contingent practices relevant for counterparty risk assessments in the interbank market.
  • Corporate Governance for Asian Publicly Listed Family-Controlled Firms - Full Report

    Source: Tony Tan, DBA, CFA, Fianna Jurdant
    Date Submitted: 06 Aug 2018
    Views: 6037
    Downloads: 122
    There is a gap in the literature concerning regulatory responses and approaches to corporate governance of controlled family firms. This report reviews the literature to develop an overview of the economic landscape of publicly listed family firms in Asia and to demonstrate the importance of these entities to the region and beyond. Another objective is to illustrate the challenges that confront policymakers in developing corporate governance policies relevant to publicly listed family firms. Discussion in the report indicates two significant hurdles for policymakers. First, there is a lack of consensus on a universal definition of a publicly listed family firm. Second, publicly listed family firms should not be perceived as a homogeneous group over which a “one size fits all” corporate governance blanket can be cast.

    The focus of the report then shifts to highlighting how an effective corporate governance system can improve performance and create value by reducing the cost of equity and reducing capital waste. The discussion examines how properties of publicly listed family firms can enhance shareholder wealth or lead to the expropriation of wealth from minority owners. The final objective of the study is to report key observations from a series of case studies spanning 14 Asian economies that cover a range of corporate governance issues central to publicly listed family firms. The case studies provide insight into current practices of Asian publicly listed family firms that may require the attention of policymakers. The issues raised in this report provide the initial building blocks for developing a more extensive road map to underpin a comprehensive analysis. Findings from this analysis can provide the foundation for evidence-based policy recommendations specific to family firms, which are a significant aspect of the Asian economic landscape and a key to the region’s current and future prosperity.

    This article qualifies for 0.5 CE under the guidelines of the CFA Institute Continuing Education Program. 
    We encourage CFA Institute members to login to the CE tracking tool to self-document these credits.

  • Why excessive aggregation “Other operating expense” in P&L?

    Source: Chie Mitsui,
    Date Submitted: 25 Sep 2017
    Views: 1176
    Downloads: 60
    To explore the issue of why the line item such as "Other operating expense", presented in the P&L and notes to the financial statements, is frequently a large amount, in the context of the rest of the items in the P&L, that is not accompanied by additional detail or disaggregation. This issue results in investors having a diminished ability to understand the financial performance of those companies that do not disclose this detail. We would like to discuss the issue of why companies fail to disaggregate these line items, and think about how disclosures could be improved. In addition, 

    Source: Hays
    Date Submitted: 12 Sep 2017
    Views: 663
    Downloads: 18
    We spoke to 145 CFOs across Asia about their background, experience, business, career and interests to uncover the DNA of a CFO. From qualifications and experience to personal development and work-life balance, our report gives you an insight into what it takes to reach the top finance job.
  • HKSFA's Comment on HKEX Consultation Paper on Review of the GEM and Changes to the GEM and Main Board Listing Rules and New Board Concept Paper

    Source: The Hong Kong Society of Financial Analysts
    Date Submitted: 05 Sep 2017
    Views: 1990
    Downloads: 19
    HKSFA's comment on HKEX's Consultation Paper on Review of the GEM and Changes to the GEM and Main Board Listing Rules and New Board Concept Paper
  • Mergers and acquisitions: how do you view their underlying substance?

    Source: Hong Kong Institute of Certified Public Accountants
    Date Submitted: 30 Aug 2017
    Views: 3263
    Downloads: 84
    Are you a shareholder or analyst with an interest in mergers and acquisitions? 
    The accounting standard-setters need your expertise. 

    We are aware that M&As are common and can take the form of group restructurings or third party acquisitions. There is usually no question that there is underlying substance to acquisitions with third parties - the transaction price typically represents the fair market value of the acquired business. But M&As within a group might arguably be different.

    The findings of this M&A survey will be published and will help us consider whether all M&As should be accounted and reported in the same way. 

    To participate, click on this link:, or download and email us the attached survey:
  • AAM-CAMRI-CFA Institute Prize - Cross-Border Acquisitions and Employee-Engagement    

    Source: Cara Vansteenkiste, Hao Liang, Luc Renneboog
    Date Submitted: 29 Aug 2017
    Views: 454
    Downloads: 0
    Paper Submission for AAM-CAMRI-CFA Institute Prize in Asset Management
  • Information content of unexpected dividends under a semi-mandatory dividend policy: An empirical study of China

    Source: Qizhi Tao, Ruixi Nan, Haoyu Li
    Date Submitted: 17 Aug 2017
    Views: 516
    Downloads: 1
    We examine the information content of unexpected dividend changes under China’s unique semi-mandatory dividend policy, which requires firms to pay a minimum amount of cash dividends
    before they can undertake seasoned equity offerings(SEO).The cumulative abnormal returns (CARs)are significantly positive in response to unexpected dividend increase for non-SEO firms, but they are not significantly different from zero for SEO firms. For non-SEO firms, there is a significant positive relation between future earnings and unexpected dividend increases, but the relation is not significant for SEO firms. However, when considering additional refinancing costs for SEO firms caused by the mandatory dividend policy,   higher dividend payments are associated with lower future earnings. Overall, our findings are consistent with both the dividend signaling theory and the negative effects of SEOs on a firm’s value.
  • Do firms have leverage targets? New evidence from mergers and acquisitions in China

    Source: Qizhi Tao, Wenjiia Sun, Yingjun Zhu, Ting Zhang
    Date Submitted: 17 Aug 2017
    Views: 1559
    Downloads: 18
    We provide new and consistent evidence supporting the trade-off theory using China’s mergers and acquisitions (M&A) deals between 2000 and 2015 as a sample. We show that acquirers do have leverage targets and they adjust their leverage ratios toward an optimal level at which the cost and benefit of the debt are equal. In examining the leverage adjustment speed during the post-acquisition period, we find that acquirers partially adjust their leverage ratios to the optimal levels; and the adjustment speed is affected by the adjustment cost proxied by the bankruptcy risk. Finally, we are able to successfully replicate the US evidence which is consistent with the trade-off theory as well using our improved methodology.
  • Political Connections and Government Subsidies: Evidence from Financially Distressed Firms in China

    Source: Qizhi Tao, Yicheng Sun, Yingjun Zhu, Xiaolin Yang
    Date Submitted: 16 Aug 2017
    Views: 464
    Downloads: 2
    Previous studies report mixed evidence regarding the effect of political connections on firmvalue.
    We seek new evidence in China, an important emerging market with a hallmark of a relationship-based economy. Using financially distressed firms (special treatment or ST firms) as a unique sample, we identify a direct channel through which political connections enhance firm value by showing that politically connected firms receive more government subsidies. Moreover, such effect becomes stronger for state-owned enterprises (SOEs), for firms with a better chance of survival, and after the government implemented a new policy to more strictly enforce the delisting in 2012.
  • Value at Risk and Expected Shortfall Estimation for China Securities Market

    Source: Yam-wing SIU
    Date Submitted: 07 Aug 2017
    Views: 822
    Downloads: 14
    Financial system stability matters for economic growth.  Instability generates adverse effects on the economy because of their spilled over effects as observed in the recent financial crisis.  Many US and European banks required governments capital injections to stay afloat.  In January 2016, Basel Committee on Banking and Supervision of Bank for International Settlements issued a new revised market risk framework – “Minimum capital requirements for market risk”.  One of the features of the revised framework is a shift to an expected shortfall measure of risk under stress.  In this paper, we performed both value-at-risk and expected shortfall estimations for US and China securities markets.  While we use S&P 500 index, SPX, for US market, we use the time series of iShares China Large-Cap ETF, FXI, as a proxy for the broad market indicator of China securities market.  It is because there is a corresponding volatility index, VXFXI, for this Large-Cap ETF.  In this study, efforts have been made to turn volatility index into a risk management tools in the context of value-at-risk and expected shortfall.  It is found that it would be inappropriate to simply scale up the 1-day volatility by multiplying the square root of time (or the number of days) ahead to determine the risk over a longer horizon of i days.  Instead, empirical constants that are used to multiply the levels of volatility indexes, VIX and VXFXI, for estimating value-at-risk and expected shortfall of various significance levels for 1 to 22 days ahead for SPX and FXI have been statistically determined using 16 years and 4.75 years of daily data respectively.  Results show that the shift to expected shortfall approach with significance level of 2.5% yields an unexpected impact on regulatory capital requirements from the value-at-risk approach with significance level of 1%.
  • RMBI Newsletter Issue 13 (Financial Crime Risk: Anti-Money Laundering and The Rise of Text Mining in Financial Markets)

    Source: Tsang Chiu Yu, Derek, Wong Ching Ip, Venice, Chiu Hok He, Angus, Li Chin Wa, Chin
    Date Submitted: 26 Jul 2017
    Views: 1011
    Downloads: 0
    In the latest issue (Issue 13 – August 2017), it covers the stories of:
    Financial Crime Risk : Anti-Money Laundering Practices in Banking
    To understand anti-money laundering, we have to understand what money laundering is. Money Laundering is the process of converting illegal funds into seemingly legitimate assets with the purpose of concealing the ownership or original source of these funds. This makes it difficult for the authorities to trace the origins of the funds. To counter this, the banking sector has established a set of internal regulations and system known as anti-money laundering. These are legal controls taken by financial institutions to investigate suspicious transactions to help prevent money laundering activities within the banking sector.
    The Rise of Text Mining in Financial Markets
    The world is awash in data. Financial markets are awash in data. We are generating around 2.5 quintillion (2.5×1018) bytes of information every day, and there is an average of 4,000 brokerage reports a day comprising around 36,000 pages in 53 languages. As market participants try to maximize their competitive edge from the growing mountain of information, the nancial world increasingly feels there is a need to harness the power of big data and it has been shaping the way they acquire, analyze and utilize data. The recent development is the rapid expansion of text mining. Hence, this article will focus on the development of Text Mining technology as well as Text Mining technique.
  • 温氏投资逻辑

    Source: 杨杰
    Date Submitted: 25 Jul 2017
    Views: 384
    Downloads: 9


    当前10年期国债收益率3.6%附近,2倍于10年期收益率,要求投资收益率等于7.2%。也即E/P=7.2% P/E=13.89。按照13.89P/E17-21年末的期望价格为,16元,34元,50元,53.2 元,55.2 元。考虑到当前的价格为19.82,当前买入持有该标的,到17-21年,每年末期对应的理论收益为:-17%73%152%168%179%。考虑到一定的交易策略,未来2-3年的时间,投资温氏股份,可以实现200%的收益率。再考虑到温氏集团作为大公司,市场系统性风险Beta低,而高市值对应的流动性很强。因此,投资温氏集团在接下来2-3年可以获得,低风险下的200%收益。

  • Corporate Governance for Asian Publicly Listed Family-Controlled Firms - Executive Summary

    Source: Tony Tan, DBA, CFA, Fianna Jurdant
    Date Submitted: 18 Jul 2017
    Views: 3961
    Downloads: 0
    Good corporate governance is increasingly considered one of the prime drivers of business success. Through transparency, equitable treatment of all shareholders, and a robust system of sound practices and procedures, good corporate governance can enhance performance and growth, both in the individual firm and at the national level.

    A solid corporate governance framework is particularly important for family firms, which face unique challenges as they balance the advantages and disadvantages of family involvement in the business.

    Based on an analysis of 56 family-controlled listed companies in 14 jurisdictions,* the CFA Institute report, Corporate Governance for Asian Publicly Listed Family-Controlled Firms, identifies opportunities to enhance corporate governance structures for family firms in the region. The report reveals how effective corporate governance can help these companies—and the regions in which they operate—continue to achieve economic success.

    Over the last few decades, Asian family firms have played a pivotal role in fueling the region’s economic growth, and their influence will continue to rise. By 2025, the number of firms in Asia with revenue exceeding USD1 billion is expected to be nearly equivalent to that in developed economies globally. Family firms will represent 75% to 80% of those entities.
    However, the growth of Asian economies in recent decades has been largely propelled by low labor and production costs. As the performance of Asian economies begins to mirror that of developed economies, their future capacity for growth will not be sustainable if they are competing on cost alone. To remain competitive, Asian family firms must innovate, expand outside of traditional markets, and professionalize, which will necessitate the tapping of global talent and capital. This will put pressure on these firms to have a corporate governance structure in place that can meet international standards and investor expectations.

    Challenges of Internationalization
    Between 2000 and 2010, the total market capitalization of Asian family firms grew significantly. A major driving force behind this was an entrepreneurial desire among Asian family firms to use capital market funding to expand in new markets, with the number of listed family firms increasing 62%. As more family firms use capital markets to fund their internationalization plans, they will face the challenge of developing sound corporate governance frameworks that meet the needs of the heightened regulatory environment and the scrutiny that comes with being listed.

    Challenges of Professionalization
    Although Asian family firms prefer to pursue family-management succession plans, many recognize the need to capitalize on external talent to meet future business pressures. Efforts to professionalize a family firm, however, may be double-edged.

    On the one hand, professionalization might boost a firm’s effectiveness. On the other hand, professionalization might give rise to additional agency costs, such as the need to offer incentives to align the interests of professional management with those of family members. If a family firm is to realize the benefits of bringing in external talent, then that incoming management will need the freedom to do the job for which they were hired. Defining an optimal equilibrium between family culture and external professionalism is therefore imperative to facilitate future value creation without incurring greater expenses.

    Challenges of Dispersed Ownership
    The average percentage of family ownership of large-size family firms in Asia is substantially lower than that seen in their European and North American counterparts. This implies increased ownership diversity, which can result in two major issues. First, with a widely dispersed minority ownership structure, the entity is potentially exposed to greater majority/minority owner conflicts. Second, Asian family owners who wish to expand their businesses while still retaining control may rely more on creditors than on further equity dilution. This could potentially lead to greater shareholder/creditor conflicts. Family firms should develop corporate governance policies to address these concerns.

    Research is inconclusive on whether the family-firm construct enhances or diminishes corporate governance practices. In theory, the long-term horizon and closer alignment of principal-agency interest in family firms should improve corporate governance. However, those same features could prove problematic by increasing risk, whether as a result of a lack of transparency, entrenchment, or wealth expropriation from minority owners.

    A solid corporate governance framework is essential for family firms to effectively balance the advantages and disadvantages of family involvement in the business. Combining governance, management, and ownership in the hands of family can bring benefits, but this centralized decision-making structure inevitably brings risks. Sound corporate governance practices can help family firms include different perspectives on their boards, which can mitigate risks. Moreover, such practices can help family firms balance the interest of different stakeholders, a task essential to the long-term sustainability of these entities. As well, sound corporate governance practices can help family firms reduce their cost of capital and reduce capital waste, making them more attractive investment targets and more competitive entities.

    The complex challenges facing publicly listed family firms in Asia are influencing the underlying corporate governance frameworks of those firms. Through a holistic understanding of corporate governance features supporting firm performance and value across the region, these firms will be better able to address the difficulties they face and to thrive in the future. The development of policy recommendations that assist in enhancing the corporate governance practices of Asian publicly listed family firms will also increase protection for minority owners from wealth expropriation by the majority, controlling family owners.

    Learn more about how corporate governance can impact family firm value and success at
  • Earnings Management and Dividend Policy: Empirical Evidence from Major Sectors of Pakistan  

    Source: Farhan Ahmed, Neha Advani, Muhammad Kashif
    Date Submitted: 17 Jul 2017
    Views: 1481
    Downloads: 23
    This paper means to inspect the regression between Price earning (P/E) ratio as a proxy of earning management and payout proportion that is dividend policy. This paper utilises multivariate analysis to examine the relationship between price-earnings ratio and dividend policy. Using 10 years annual data from 2006-2016, this paper delivers new confirmation demonstrating that when the return on equity is more prominent than the required rate of return, the P/E ratio and dividend payout ratio shows a negative relationship and positive convexity or vice versa.
  • The Economic Reality of Non-Cash Charges

    Source: Gaurang S. Trivedi
    Date Submitted: 13 Jul 2017
    Views: 506
    Downloads: 18
    Statutory statements prepared for reporting purposes are a combination of accounting rules formulated to characterize the accrual process, management estimates based on past experience applied to projected events, and managerial judgment that is subject to cost-benefit rationale. The net earnings per share number, which in the ultimate analysis increases shareholders’ equity, is mostly neglected in management discussions and analysis. A majority of the managerial analysis is concentrated on alternative numbers arrived at by massaging the earnings information. The ensuing treatise is an endeavor to reconnect the economic implications of the accounting for depreciation, goodwill amortization/impairment charges (universally assumed to be non-cash charges), as well as other one-time charges, that are being neglected by most investors when analyzing manipulated pro-forma earnings reports from corporate managements. Since earnings comprise an integral part of expected returns, a sound knowledge of accounting theory and concepts is essential for conducting insightful financial analysis. The purpose of this research is to generate a healthy debate amongst accounting, finance, and other professionals who are consumers of company information to evaluate the efficacy of reported financial statements, management discussion and analysis that accompanies them, and current valuation methodologies practiced. Contrary to popular notions, if cognitive biases are removed, one may find that accounting earnings do mirror economic reality.
  • Title: A Resolution to the Problem of Multiple IRR: A Modified Capital Amortization Schedule (MCAS) Method for Non-Normal Cash flow (NNCF) to Obtain a Unique IRR (July 11, 2017).

    Source: Kannapiran C. Arjunan
    Date Submitted: 12 Jul 2017
    Views: 400
    Downloads: 1

    Title: A Resolution to the Problem of Multiple IRR: A Modified Capital Amortization Schedule (MCAS) Method for Non-Normal Cash flow (NNCF) to Obtain a Unique IRR 


    The problem of multiple IRR remained unresolved for almost a century. This problem is associated only with some of the non-normal net cash flow (NNCF) that wrongly includes reinvestment income as income or benefit stream. The reinvestment income, which is not a benefit from the investment or project under analysis, causes the multiple IRR problem. This is often misinterpreted as problem of IRR but its neither a problem with IRR nor NPV. It is a problem associated with some NNCF data and the failure to update the discounted cash flow (DCF) or capital amortization schedule (CAS) methods to handle such problem.
    Using NNCF data, analyses are conducted with special emphasis on topics such as:

    a.      A modified CAS (MCAS) method that eliminates multiple IRR associated with NNCF data;
    b.      Multiple IRR problem and the Descartes rule of sign and Norstrom’s criteria;
    c.      A NNCF data with a unique IRR under DCF / CAS methods vs IRR by MCAS method;
    d.      Resolving the problem of multiple IRR by MCAS Method Versus MIRR; and
    e.      A critical review of the GIRR and AIRR Methods to Estimate NNCF.
    The salient findings of the present analysis are:
    a.      The MCAS method, presented in this paper, identifies and eliminates the reinvestment income associated with NNCF investments (with positive opening balance in one or more years in the CAS) from the benefit stream;
    b.      This new method overcomes the multiple IRR problem and leads to a unique and real IRR; The effectiveness of MCAS to handle the NNCF data is illustrated with numerical analysis;
    c.      The assumption of reinvestment at IRR or at hurdle rate in NPV are false assertions in the cases of normal NCF and some of the NNCFs. However, such reinvestment is evident only with NNCFs with positive opening balance in one or more years under the CAS.
    d.      The reinvestment income under the benefit stream causes multiple IRRs and multiple NPVs too. As NPV is a static point estimate (at hurdle rate) the multiple NPVs are not exposed. Without eliminating the reinvestment income, none of the criterions viz. NPV, IRR or MIRR, is useful as a decision criterion. Neither NPV or MIRR is a preferred criterion, under such circumstances, as recommended in some published works.
    e.      The MCAS method is appropriate for both normal NCF and NNCF as illustrated in this paper. CAS or DCF method is appropriate only for normal NCF investments.
    f.       Even when there is no multiple IRRs with some NNCFs under DCF/CAS method, the MCAS method estimated IRR or NPV, without reinvestment income, are different from that of the DCF/CAS estimated IRR and NPV. For a consistent estimate of IRR and NPV, the MCAS method is most appropriate both for NCF and NNCF investments.
    g.      The generalized IRR (GIRR) and the Average IRR (AIRR) are also not appropriate estimates for NNCF and they are not NCF consistent as discussed in this paper. The problem of multiple IRR associated with the popular cases of NCF investments used in GIRR and AIRR, are also resolved now.
    In conclusion, the MCAS method resolves the problem of multiple IRR and leads to a unique IRR that is real and NCF-consistent. Neither the NPV nor the MIRR could resolve the problem of multiple IRR.

  • Interest in ESG Investing Poised to Grow Further in Asia Pacific

    Source: Chan Fook Leong, CFA
    Date Submitted: 10 Jul 2017
    Views: 2614
    Downloads: 0
    • CFA Institute further extends ARX ESG Investing Series to Singapore to discuss motivations for ESG integration in the region.
    • Panelists from S&P Dow Jones Indices, City Developments Ltd., ADL Infra Capital Myanmar, and ESGuru spoke to a full house of CFA Institute members and local practitioners on developments in green finance.
    • Participants concluded that despite challenges, green finance would continue to attract investor interest; supply of green instruments needs to catch-up.
    • Social and governance considerations still in their infancy in the region.
    • The question of alpha potential inconclusive.
    Dr. Tony Tan, CFA, head, global society advocacy engagement at CFA Institute kicked off the May 11, 2017 lunch-time talk entitled ‘Is green finance a fad? Or does it possess alpha potential?’ The event, organized by CFA Institute and CFA Society Singapore follows the first of the ARX ESG Investing Series, hosted in Hong Kong. This series has been developed in response to demand for ESG-related research on research platform, Asia-Pacific Research Exchange (
  • Operating? /non-Operating? Is current disclosure helpful for understanding companies?

    Source: Chie Mitsui
    Date Submitted: 26 Jun 2017
    Views: 733
    Downloads: 20
    Is current disclosure of Operating profit /expense helpful for understanding companies?
    We discussed how difficult to distinguish whether Operating / Non operating in financial statements recently with investors, information providers, accounting setters in Hong Kong. 
    It makes lower comparability and becomes barrier of understanding company value.
    We discussed several points of view to solve it and revealed that disclosure issues of IFRS are highly common among investors globally.
  • Evaluation of company’s value in acquisition & ideal disclosure

    Source: Chie Mitsui
    Date Submitted: 23 Jun 2017
    Views: 3039
    Downloads: 80
    "How investors analyse and what managements need to explain, when M&A happened?" We discussed this issues in Japan, with some accounting standard setters.  
    We have been discussing about comparability issue and line item classification issue from users’ point of view in the past workshops. At the last workshop ( , we discussed on whether “share of profit/loss of associates” is “operating” or “investing” may differ by company or its business, focusing on the point that “What is really comparable? Does same account name mean same substance? Which is same in substance?”.

    The way of business for companies are changing nowadays, that we should focus on the point that more M&A is happening in place of building factory and hiring people in old times. So we focused on the point how investors should evaluate companies’ value in acquisition and what companies need to explain in our discussion.
  • Presentation deck of ARX seminar - Stock Market Efficiency, Participants and Investment Delegation

    Source: Yeguang Chi
    Date Submitted: 09 Jun 2017
    Views: 2758
    Downloads: 25
    Presentation deck of CFA China Shanghai seminar - Stock Market Efficiency, Participants and Investment Delegation

    In December 2016 CFA Institute supported the 29th Australasian Finance and Banking Conference by sponsoring two research awards in Banking / Finance / Investment Management in Asia-Pacific markets and the winner of the first prize goes to Yeguang Chi, associate professor of Shanghai Jiaotong University SAIF.

    In addition to uploading Professor Chi’s winning paper “Private Information in the Chinese Stock Market: Evidence from Mutual Funds and Corporate Insiders onto ARX, to bridge the gap between academics and practitioners we have created a Practitioner’s Brief, a short practitioner-focused digest of the research paper and an accompanying video edition of that digest.  The brief and video were well received and CFA China Shanghai decided to bring it to life by hosting the first o2o seminar on June 6.

    During the event Professor Chi first illustrated the conditions of China’s stock market in terms of trading volume of retail investors and performance of mutual funds. Then he presented his research findings on how and why mutual funds and institutional investors in China outperform the market, highlighted the disadvantages retail investors possess in a considerably inefficient market and encouraged retail investors in China to consider delegate the investment decision to fund managers, trade less or to go for passive investments. Meanwhile he also urged for more disclosures on private meetings and stronger enforcement against insider trades to enhance market efficiency.

    Professor Chi's presentation deck can be downloaded in the attached.
  • 洪灝:新监管下的风险重新定价

    Source: Hao Hong, CFA
    Date Submitted: 01 Jun 2017
    Views: 449
    Downloads: 4
    This research appears on WenXin's blog "洪灝的中国市场策略" on 24 May 2017.
  • Re-pricing Risks under New Regulations

    Source: Hao Hong, CFA
    Date Submitted: 01 Jun 2017
    Views: 645
    Downloads: 9
    This research appears on WenXin's blog "Hong Hao China Strategy" on 24 May 2017.
  • Valuation Insights - India Edition, May 2017

    Source: Varun Gupta
    Date Submitted: 09 May 2017
    Views: 2893
    Downloads: 0

    Valuation Insights is a quarterly e-newsletter that provides you with the latest news from Duff & Phelps and the trends and changes in valuation and accounting that could affect your business transactions in Asia.

    In this edition, our top stories cover the Financial Accounting Standards Board issuing an Accounting Standards Update, robust fair value measurement, the International Valuation Standards Council releasing the 2017 edition of its International Valuation Standards, and a recent Duff & Phelps study about fairness opinions.

    We will also look at important Duff & Phelps reports and articles, including a recorded forum presentation by Professor Damodaran and the Duff & Phelps Global Regulatory Outlook 2017.

  • Stock Market Market Crash of 2008: an empirical study of the deviation of share prices from company fundamentals

    Source: Taisei Kaizoji, MIchiko Miyano,
    Date Submitted: 06 May 2017
    Views: 533
    Downloads: 34
    The aim of this study is to investigate quantitatively whether share prices deviated from company fundamentals in the stock market crash of 2008. For this purpose, we use a large database containing the balance sheets and share prices of 7,796 worldwide companies for the period 2004 through 2013. We develop a panel regression model using three financial indicators–dividends per share, cash flow per share, and book value per share–as explanatory variables for share price. We then estimate individual company fundamentals for each year by removing the time fixed effects from the two-way fixed effects model, which we identified as the best of the panel regression models. One merit of our model is that we are able to extract unobservable factors of company fundamentals by using the individual fixed effects. Based on these results, we analyze the market anomaly quantitatively using the 
    divergence rate–the rate of the deviation of share price from a company’s fundamentals. We find that share prices on average were overvalued in the period from 2005 to 2007, and were undervalued significantly in 2008, when the global financial crisis occurred. Share prices were equivalent to the fundamentals on average in the subsequent period. Our empirical results clearly demonstrate that the worldwide stock market fluctuated excessively in the time period before and just after the global financial crisis of 2008. 
  • HUT - Real Estate Segment Drags Down 2017 Growth

    Source: Son Nguyen, Thien Viet Securities JSC
    Date Submitted: 28 Apr 2017
    Views: 558
    Downloads: 13
    We attended HUT’s Conference Day with following highlights: 
  • Analyst Report - Best World International Ltd

    Source: Charles Phan Zhong Wei, Jeremy Liang Jinrong, Ai Xin
    Date Submitted: 27 Mar 2017
    Views: 584
    Downloads: 50
    Sell-side research report on Best World International Ltd. Initiate a Buy Call with upside of 47.7%. Includes: - detailed report of analysis - slide deck to pitch the stock recommendation - financial model with detailed accounting adjustments, performance analysis, forecasts and valuations
  • Mergers & Acquisitions: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (and how to tell them apart)

    Source: Richard Tortoriello, Temi Oyeniyi, CFA, David Pope, CFA, Paul Fruin, CFA, Ruben Falk
    Date Submitted: 25 Mar 2017
    Views: 668
    Downloads: 27
    This is a Quantamental Research published by S&P Global Market Intelligence in August 2016.
  • APEI LBO Case Competition 2017 - LBO of AmorePacific Corporation

    Source: Charles Phan Zhong Wei, Chua Kian Chong, Chan Jun Hao, Sylvester Yeo Kai Ren
    Date Submitted: 20 Mar 2017
    Views: 932
    Downloads: 87
    Advisory for the AmorePacific Group's leveraged buyout of AmorePacific Corporation (target). The following key points are addressed: - Executive summary - Recent financial / operating performance of AmorePacific Group - Industry overview - Strategic alternatives to an LBO - Recommendations to restruture the combined firm - Deal structure and financing - Valuation summary - Returns Analysis - Risk(s) related to the deal
  • PLAYING WITH A STRAIGHT BAT - A Concise Report on brand values in the Indian Premier League

    Source: Varun Gupta
    Date Submitted: 16 Mar 2017
    Views: 1375
    Downloads: 26
    Duff & Phelps has published the third edition of our annual* study of Brand Values in the Indian Premier League (IPL). The report ranks the franchise brand values for six teams in the IPL based upon a relief from royalty analysis coupled with an assessment of six other factors; including management strength and on-field performance, marketing strategy, celebrity influence and marquee players, geographical location, governance and transparency and social media engagement. Key findings include: Total value of the IPL has grown by 19% over the last five quarters to reach US$ 4.2 billion. Mumbai Indians had the highest brand value in the IPL Royal Challengers Bangalore were the biggest gainers with brand value increasing by 31%, while Kings XI Punjab were the biggest losers.
  • CSR Practice and Sustainable Business Performance: Evidence from the Global Financial Centre of China

    Source: Tai Min Wut, Artie Ng
    Date Submitted: 17 Feb 2017
    Views: 1222
    Downloads: 7
    The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China (Hong Kong) has long been positioned not only as an international capital market but also as the global financial centre for China. To position themselves for overseas expansions, major enterprises in China are now listed with the Stock Exchange of Hong Kong and adopt internationally accepted corporate practices. In particular, there have been emphases by multinationals on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices for the potential benefits of enhanced business performance as demonstrated in prior studies. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between business performance and CSR practices among listed companies in Hong Kong. We have investigated and made comparisons between two groups of listed companies in Hong Kong -- those included in the Hang Seng Corporate Sustainability index and the other major ones in Hong Kong not included in the Index. It is found that there is a significant difference between the two groups in the sample. A direct association between adoption of CSR practice and sustainable business performance in financial aspects is observed over an extended period of time. However, we argue that there is not yet sufficient disclosure in relation to the quality of their overall CSR and sustainability performance.
  • Disclosure Level and Cost of Equity Capital of IPO Firms: Evidence from Singapore

    Source: Ming Jian, Ming Xu
    Date Submitted: 17 Feb 2017
    Views: 730
    Downloads: 5
    This paper examines the tendency of initial issuers to exhibit lower levels of disclosure in their prospectuses ensuing relaxed disclosure requirements by the exchange. It focuses on disclosure pertaining to issuers’ corporate governance structures with the element of disclosure branched into quality and quantity which we find to be highly correlated. Despite general postulation that disclosure quality and quantity will decline after relaxation, the results suggest otherwise. The departure is however largely attributed to companies’ responses to investors’ demand for enhanced disclosure following high-profile corporate failures. Furthermore, it also investigates the association between cost-of-equity capital and the quality and quantity of disclosure. The findings are consistent with economic theory which advocates a negative relationship between them, suggesting that disclosure levels have a part to play in asset-pricing models.

    Source: Omar Berbiche
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 822
    Downloads: 14
    AMC Theatres, a huge but in trouble American cinema operator, was about to be the next victim of an LBO with negative net results for few years. Therefore, the Hollywood tycoons and industry were very surprised when Dalian Wanda Group announced the acquisition of AMC Theatres for US$2.7 billion in 2012. Private equity funds, owners of AMC Theatres had left the theatre chain to deteriorate day after day compared to its competitors so that the bulbs of the projectors were not changed, projecting poor quality films. AMC is an old cinema chain, in a sector where competition is fierce and with no growth market. One might even wonder if Wanda can make money after the acquisition, or simply enjoy a company in difficulty, help them getting their head above water and make another disastrous Chinese investment. Nevertheless, 15 months later, Wang Jianlin, owner and chairman of Dalian Wanda Group and the second richest man in China at that time, saw the value of its shares in AMC Entertainment more than doubled, making a gain of US$800 million. This essay aims to analyze and evaluate in detail how to value a cross-border acquisition from a Chinese perspective in the entertainment industry, analyse how China ownership impacted America's AMC performance and how Dalian Wanda got strategic gains like film distribution, chain management and production standards bringing new content or technology back to China. This analysis includes industry conditions and market conditions since the two companies went public, assess the rational of the transaction in the operating performance and how the two markets and business model differ from each other. Meanwhile, this essay elaborates in detail how, through this acquisition, Wanda has turned into the biggest cinema operator in the world, and has gained a global key position, spreading Chinese soft power abroad.
  • Chinese Investment in the Carbon Risky Canadian Oil and Gas Industry

    Source: Jonathan Hammond
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 2110
    Downloads: 13
    Chinese investor Tri-Win International Investment Group Inc. (Tri-Win) acquired Calgary, Canada based oil and gas producer Hyperion Exploration Corporation (Hyperion) on January 9th 2015 for CAD$31.9 million taking the previously listed Toronto Venture Exchange traded company private. In the developing climate sensitive landscape of Canada, increasing importance is being placed on combatting climate change and putting a price on carbon dioxide emissions. Due to the carbon intensive production of unconventional Canadian oil and gas products, current and future Chinese investors within this industry must adequately quantify their financial exposure to carbon risk in their valuation models. This thesis seeks to critically analyze whether Chinese investor Tri-Win used a methodology for quantifying and valuing carbon risk with the acquisition of Canadian oil and gas producer Hyperion and if it was sufficient or not. The implications from this thesis for Chinese investors stem from a unique methodology for quantifying carbon risk in oil and gas investments within the country of Canada. Through this analysis, it will be shown that Tri-Win did not accurately quantify their exposure to carbon risk leading to significant future carbon risk exposure. This lack of accurate valuing of carbon risk exposed them to substantial impending financial liabilities with regards to an encumbering stricter landscape for carbon emitters.

    Source: Zhu Qiqi
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 799
    Downloads: 13
    Horizontal M&A between market dominant players can bring in tremendous synergy but faces tight constraints and conditions. This paper aims to detect the keys to success of Ctrip acquiring Qunar and offer lesson to other horizontal M&As. The key success factors can be divided into four parts: For negotiation counterparty, this paper analyzes conflicts on M&A decision. Given the shareholder structure of Qunar, Baidu is actually the decision marker. That’s why Ctrip successfully reached M&A agreement with Baidu without approval from management of Qunar. Shareholder structure and board seat are two keys for acquirer to find proper target and right counterparty to negotiate with. For choice of payment, from answering why Ctrip acquired Qunar through share-exchange with Baidu, this paper illustrates the significant role of stock-for-stock payment and consideration in a real case. For determination of stock exchange ratio, this paper utilizes market approach and equity value approach to decide valuation range for Ctrip and Qunar, which provides valuation example for such horizontal stock-for-stock merge. For transaction structure design and regulation, such horizontal M&A may result in higher concentration ratio of an industry and will face regulation of anti-trust law. This paper studies anti-trust law in China and find out why Ctrip only acquires less than 50% of Qunar to offer a lesson for other deals.

    Source: Zhang Fan
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 740
    Downloads: 9
    With the introduction of Growth Enterprises Market Board in China, we are posed with great challenges to understand M&A from light assets industries, with high market to book value. A representative sub industry is game industry. This thesis used the format of case study and took Ourpalm Co., Ltd’s serial acquisitions as an example. This thesis discussed about motivations for conducting serial acquisitions, valuation method and characteristics of game companies, rationality of target companies’ valuation, level of synergy, and deal term feature in game industry M&A. It was found that one of the targets, Hainan Dovo was fairly priced, but market zeal for acquiring game companies played a significant role. Post-acquisition analysis showed that sharing of channel resources was the most important synergy in game industry M&A. This thesis displays insight of game industry M&A in A-share market, and provides reference for acquirers and investors in future game M&A deals. Since the acquiring company was the only listed game company in mainland China back to 2013, it offered us a unique opportunity to examine the synergy among them, and compare the serial acquisitions horizontally. In addition, many conclusions are also applicable for other light assets companies. Since China’s economy is now undergoing an extensive transformation from heavy assets driven to light assets driven, our understanding of light assets companies’ M&A becomes more important.

    Source: Yu Zhonghai
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 780
    Downloads: 11
    This paper discusses theories about debt restructuring with an extensive case study of the debt restructurings of Kaisa, a Hong Kong listed real estate developer in China. This paper serves to help understand disadvantages of foreign debt holders in restructurings, as well as key considerations of debt holders in debt restructurings, especially with family firms as the borrowers. The case study starts from the two restructuring plans of Kaisa as well as the reaction of the market and offers real world evidence for theories above. This paper achieves the following main results. Firstly, foreign debt holders suffer from information asymmetry and under-collateralization issue which are caused by geographic disadvantage and capital regulation policies in China. Secondly, major considerations of the debt holders include economic return, security of restructured debts, as well as lower bargaining cost and feasibility which help to close the restructuring faster. Especially when the borrowers are family firms, debt holders should be cautious to use equity injections and debt-for-equity swaps since family firms are sensitive to dilution of control power. Kaisa’s case is the first default and first debt restructuring event of oversea bonds issued by Chinese real estate companies. This study provides references and experience for foreign investors’ future investment in similar securities. Moreover, this case could also be teaching material of corporate finance course as it is originally designed.

    Source: Chai Jingjing
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 788
    Downloads: 7
    By the combination of theoretical analysis and a case study on Stellar ABS, this paper helps to understand the how two-tier SPV structure differs from traditional ABS structure and the benefits of applying two-tier SPV structure. The analysis would be done in mainly three aspects: the advantages of enterprise ABS, the differences of one-tier and two-tier SPV structure and their applicability, and the benefits & costs of two-tier SPV structure. The research has got the following main results. Firstly, enterprise ABS has its strengths over bank loans and corporate bonds on the liquidity it provides and the flexibility over financing scale and duration. Secondly, two-tier SPV uses a trust scheme as the second SPV. So trust beneficiary right becomes the underlying asset while cash flow from issuers becomes the trust loan repayment source. So one-tier SPV structure is more applicable to enterprises whose existing and specific assets can generate sustainable cash flow within the duration of ABS with contractual or regulatory proof. For other enterprises that have sustainable cash flow but cannot fulfill all the criteria, two-tier SPV structure is suggested. Finally, two-tier SPV structure helps sidestep several constraints, making it possible for some companies to finance through securitization. Economies of scale can be realized by combining related income categories or companies together in one asset pool. Risk diversification effect can also be realized by involving different assets with low correlation into the same asset pool. Taking account of the immaturity of ABS market, enterprise ABS with risk diversification feature would be more appealing to investors. This case study contributes to the research and practice by providing implications on the applicability and benefits of two-tier SPV structure in enterprise ABS.

    Source: Zhou Qi
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 681
    Downloads: 7
    This thesis analyzes the key success factors of online travel business models and their influence on the company’s valuation. We propose three most important key success factors, which are 1) core function design; 2) profit model’s consistency with core function; 3) closed loop O2O system. These factors can influence representative companies’ abilities to acquire users and turn users into revenue, thus influence their valuation.  The good core function design should provide simple and convenient travel information and services. This kind of core function can significantly improve companies’ ability of user acquisition.  The profit model’s consistency with the core function is the key success factor that can increase user’s willingness to pay, thus improve companies’ ability to turn users into revenue.  Closed loop O2O system is the online transaction—off-line consumption—online feedback circle. It can strengthen users’ trust in service quality and improve companies’ ability to turn users into revenue. Huoli Holdings’ case is used as an example to study in detail the key success factors’ influence on its user acquisition and revenue generating abilities. We also analyze how those KSFs determine firm valuation by influencing these core abilities. The conclusion contributes to theoretical study of online travel business models, and the key success factors can also be used in practical as guidance for related companies.

    Source: Zhou Mao
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 755
    Downloads: 14
    This thesis analyzes private equity’s exit strategy for investments in Chinese overseas listed companies based on the case study of Jin Jiang acquiring Keystone from the following perspectives. Firstly, motivations and functions of PE investors in the PPP (Public-Private-Public) process of Chinese overseas listed companies are discussed. Valuation arbitrage opportunity between overseas and domestic markets is the most direct reason for PE investors to participate in this process. Secondly, exit options and criteria of PE investors in formulating exit strategies are investigated. For investments of Chinese companies delisted from overseas market, there are four typical exit options in China: IPO, backdoor listing, New Three Board listing and M&A. This paper thoroughly analyzes their differences and practical issues PE investors need to consider under each option. PE investors will evaluate each option by various criteria including return, convenience, risk, timeliness and liquidity. For investments in Chinese companies delisted from overseas market, PE investors especially value three criteria of the exit option: timeliness, risk and convenience. Thirdly, exit payment method and post-investment managements are discussed. In terms of payment methods in an M&A transaction, cash payment has advantages of avoiding post-deal risk, high certainty and high timeliness for PE investors. In terms of post-investment management, active management of PE investor is beneficial for its successful exit. The contribution of this thesis comes from two sides. Theoretically, this thesis investigates a practical and timely issue based on theoretical frameworks; Practically, this thesis provides guidance and insights for PE investors in their future investments.

    Source: Huang Mengwei
    Date Submitted: 09 Feb 2017
    Views: 700
    Downloads: 5
    The real estate industry in China is typically capital-dependent with one of the highest leverage levels compared to other industries. Motivations for choosing high leverage and how real estate firms manage the leverage risk and achieve high growth are very important topics in corporate management and corporate finance. In this paper, I combine theoretical and empirical analyses to study the phenomenon of high leverage commonly employed by Chinese real estate firms. In particular, I study Yango Group Co., Ltd (“Yango”), a real estate firm publicly listed in the Shenzhen Stock Exchange since 1996. In 2012, Yango changed the location of its headquarter from Fuzhou to Shanghai. Since then, Yango has employed high-leverage and achieved 1000% sales growth in just 3 years. By using a high-turnover strategy and diversifying its financing channels, Yango has managed the leverage risk as well. This case study will provide valuable insights to publicly listed real estate firms, especially small and medium sized developers. Although bank loans were recognized as the most frequently used and most traditional financing channel, government policies have driven real estate firms to finance through non-bank innovative financial instruments such as trust, fund, stock pledge, etc. Because Chinese real estate firms’ financing needs are not met by traditional debt or equity financing channels, these firms have incentives to resort to other forms of leverage channels. As a result of their aggressive expansions with high leverage, these firms face risks of inventory pile-up, cash flow management failure and bankruptcy. Real estate firms could implement high turnover strategy and diversified financing channels in order to manage high leverage risk.
  • Private Equity in China Concept Stocks’ Privatization and Relisting —A case study of CITIC PE and 3S Bio

    Source: Zhou Xinling
    Date Submitted: 13 Jan 2017
    Views: 1034
    Downloads: 0
    China Concept Stocks’ “returning home”, privatization and relisting, is a hot topic in recent years. And private equity firms play important roles in this trend. However, understanding to private equity’s investment decisions and roles in this area is very limited. Motivated by this phenomenon, this paper combines theoretical analysis and the case study of CITIC PE investing 3S Bio, one of the latest and most successful cases, to conduct comprehensive research. Innovatively, this paper highlighted special considerations for private equity firms in the following 4 aspects: 1) favored characteristics of the target companies for privatization and relisting projects 2) considerations in choosing relisting exchange 3) intrinsic value creation of the target company 4) return creation of such investments.
  • NZFC - Agency Theory, Corporate Governance and Dividend Payout in New Zealand

    Source: Helen Roberts, Travis Brown
    Date Submitted: 10 Jan 2017
    Views: 593
    Downloads: 6
    This study examines the effect of internal corporate governance on the likelihood and the level of dividend payout in New Zealand during the period 2004 - 2012.
  • Agency Theory, Corporate Governance and Dividend Payout in New Zealand

    Source: Helen Roberts, Travis Brown
    Date Submitted: 05 Jan 2017
    Views: 535
    Downloads: 4
    This paper examines the effect of internal corporate governance on the likelihood and the level of dividend payout in New Zealand. We find a positive relationship between the level of dividend payout and internal corporate governance. Interestingly, our results also support a non-linear relationship between dividend policy and beneficial director ownership levels. We find evidence to suggest that lower dividend payout coincides with decreasing agency costs arising from increased director-shareholder alignment for beneficial director share ownership less than 26%. The relationship becomes negative when ownership exceeds 56%. The high levels of ownership invoke managers to invest surplus cash to maximize firm value, with dividend policy acting as a substitute for director oversight. Entrenchment exists for ownership levels between 26% and 56%. We also find that external ownership combined with strong board governance may mitigate agency problems.
  • AFM - Leverage and the Japanese Financial Crisis

    Source: Robert B. Durand, Joye Khoo
    Date Submitted: 27 Nov 2016
    Views: 518
    Downloads: 8
    Japanese firms responded to the country’s Lost Decades (失われた20年) by reducing their debt. Average leverage fell from 27.49% in 1990 to 19.34% in 2014. Nearly-all-equity firms (firms with less than 5% leverage ratio) increased from 7.5% of the sample in 1990 to 28.3% in 2014. (Paper submitted for consideration for the award of "CFA Best Paper Award on Asia-Pacific Capital Markets" in the Auckland Finance Meeting conference."
  • AFM - Driving the Presence of Investor Sentiment: the Role of Media Tone in IPOs

    Source: Zhe Shen, Jiaxing You, Michael Firth
    Date Submitted: 23 Nov 2016
    Views: 576
    Downloads: 2
    This paper examines whether the media can drive the presence of investor sentiment around the IPO event through the tone channel. Using word frequency analysis to define whether one newspapers article is positive or negative and measuring media tone as the number of positive in excess of negative newspapers articles in the pre-IPO period, we find robust evidence that media tone is positively related to IPO first-day returns while negatively related to long-run abnormal returns for a sample of Chinese book-built IPOs over the 2005-2012 period. One positive newspapers article can predict not only an increase of up to 6.95 percentage points in first-day returns but also a decrease of 10.93 percentage points in three-year abnormal returns. Further analysis suggests that media tone tends to increase first-day retail trading and attracts more retail investors to subscribe new shares in the primary market. Taken together, these findings are consistent with our hypothesis that media tone drives retail demand for IPOs, leading to a temporary deviation from fundamentals in post-IPO prices.
  • AFM - Do Analysts Play a Role in Shaping the Rival Response of Target Firms? International Evidence

    Source: Zhe An, Zhian Chen, Donghui Li, Michael Murong
    Date Submitted: 23 Nov 2016
    Views: 526
    Downloads: 5
    Employing a sample of 4271 initial-industry target firms across 34 countries from 1989 to 2013, this paper shows that analyst following positively impacts the cumulative announcement returns (CARs) of the rivals of target firms. Furthermore, a transparent macro information environment can substitute the role of analysts in determining the CARs of rivals. In addition, it shows that those rivals that have a higher probability of becoming targets subsequently, or that do in fact become targets subsequently, exhibit higher CARs. The results are unchanged by using the exogenous decrease in analyst following (i.e., brokerage closure and merger) as an instrumental variable. Overall, the findings support the Acquisition Probability Hypothesis.
  • AFBC - Environmental Risk, Bank Certification, and Stock Market Reaction

    Source: Hung Manh Nguyen
    Date Submitted: 16 Nov 2016
    Views: 544
    Downloads: 6
    This paper has been accepted to present at the 29th AFBC Conference in Sydney. Submission Number: 2825863. The original title for AFBC submission was: "Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall: The Role of Banks in Mitigating Information Asymmetries Nowadays" The current title for ARX submissions is: "Environmental Risk, Bank Certification, and Stock Market Reaction".
  • The Performance of Governmental Venture Capital Firms: A Life Cycle Perspective and Evidence from China

    Source: Yuejia Zhang, David Mayes
    Date Submitted: 16 Nov 2016
    Views: 956
    Downloads: 10
    The Performance of Governmental Venture Capital Firms: A Life Cycle Perspective and Evidence from China
  • ESG and Firm Performance in an Emerging Economy

    Source: Dipasha Sharma , Shagun Thukral , Sonali Bhattacharya
    Date Submitted: 08 Nov 2016
    Views: 844
    Downloads: 0
    The primary motive of any firm has always been to generate profits and maximize value for its shareholders. However with global economic crisis unfolding one after the other since the start of the millennium there has been a shift in the focus of governments, regulators, investors and corporations to a more “socially responsible” behavior by firms in addition to profit maximization. This includes the importance given by firms to areas such as sustainability, environmental, social and governance (ESG) concerns and ethical considerations. This has generated lot of research interest in comparison of performance of firms that do show due consideration to these factors versus those that do not. In this study we highlight the gaps in the existing literature and follows econometric modelling to discuss following hypothesis: Hypothesis 1: High Level of Corporate Sustainable Performance in terms of Environmental, Social and Governance will be associated with high financial performance Hypothesis 2: Size of the firm will moderate the relationship between Corporate Sustainable Performance in terms of Environmental, Social and Governance and financial performance. Hypothesis 3: Industry classification of the firm will moderate the relationship between Corporate Sustainable Performance in terms of Environmental, Social and Governance and financial performance.
  • Do Franking Credits Matter? Exploring the Financial Implications of Dividend Imputation

    Source: Andrew Ainsworth, Graham Partington, Geoff Warren
    Date Submitted: 07 Nov 2016
    Views: 771
    Downloads: 3
    Examines the implications of dividend imputation for stock prices and returns, cost of capital, project evaluation, capital structure, payout policy and investor portfolios. it is argued that its removal would be detrimental.
  • Are imputation credits capitalised into stock prices?

    Source: Shaun Saiu, Stephen Sault, Geoff Warren
    Date Submitted: 07 Nov 2016
    Views: 1063
    Downloads: 0
    Examines DCF valuations and earnings yields, and finds at best mixed and largely unconvincing evidence of imputation credits being capitalised into share price levels for Australian shares.
  • HKUST Risk Management and Business Intellegence (RMBI) Newsletter Issue 9

    Source: Wong Yuen Man, Kwong Wing Man, Chan Ling Fung, Lo Ka Chun, Ng Wing Leong, Tam Kiu Fai, Lee Tung Kiu, Lee Kwok Ho
    Date Submitted: 02 Nov 2016
    Views: 1025
    Downloads: 0
    In this issue, we discuss about the current situation of Hong Kong's Logistics Industry, including ogictics business cycle and its embbeded risk, big data and new technologies, as well as the future development and suggestions to the logistics industry. Basel III, the histroy and its evolution, impact on locan banks and lessons leanred from overseas.
  • AFBC - Uncertainty Major Investment and Capital Structure Dynamics

    Source: Hyun Joong Im, Chang Yong Ha, Ya Kang, Janghoon Shon,
    Date Submitted: 21 Oct 2016
    Views: 559
    Downloads: 6
    This study examines the effects of uncertainty on firms’ capital structure dynamics. We find that high-uncertainty firms have significantly lower leverage targets and significantly higher adjustment speeds toward targets, and that over-levered firms faced with high uncertainty have much higher adjustment speeds, while under-levered firms’ adjustment speeds are not influenced by uncertainty. An investigation of leverage adjustment behavior of over-levered and under-levered firms during major and routine investment periods in relation to uncertainty provides evidence that bankruptcy threat, agency costs, and real option channels account for various aspects of leverage dynamics.
  • Financial insight: challenges and opportunities

    Source: ACCA Global
    Date Submitted: 14 Oct 2016
    Views: 959
    Downloads: 6
    This report suggests ways the nance function can improve current approaches to business partnering. It proposes nine pragmatic actions to improve partnering practices anchored in three core component parts: creating the mandate, xing the information and deploying the talent.
  • Analyst Report - Starhub (Oct 15)

    Source: Sylvester Yeo, Cheng Jun Song, Kenny Tay, Lim You Jie, Sarah Leong,
    Date Submitted: 11 Oct 2016
    Views: 705
    Downloads: 17
    Research report on Starhub dated October 2015 with a sell call
  • AFBC - The Value Relevance of Regulatory Capital Components

    Source: Martien Lubberink, Roger Willett
    Date Submitted: 21 Sep 2016
    Views: 759
    Downloads: 12
    Our paper examines how investors value regulatory bank capital components, e,g. Tier 1 Hybrids, deduction of Goodwill, etc.
  • AFBC - Learning and Contractual Evolution: The Case of Leveraged Loans

    Source: Edison Yu, Mitchell Berlin, Gregory Nini
    Date Submitted: 21 Sep 2016
    Views: 659
    Downloads: 7
    A working paper to be presented at the 29th Australian Finance and Banking Conference
  • AFBC-Asset diversification and efficiency: Evidence from the Chinese banking sector

    Source: Kai Du, Andrew C. Worthington, Valentin Zelenyuk
    Date Submitted: 20 Sep 2016
    Views: 788
    Downloads: 13
    This paper investigates the impact of earning asset diversification on Chinese bank efficiency from 2006 to 2011. To do so, we adapt the Simar and Wilson (2007) (Journal of Econometrics) approach to panel data context so that approach allows for technology change over time. Regression results reveal that increasing the asset share of other earning assets (including securities and derivatives) is positively associated with bank efficiency. Decreasing the share of nonearning assets in total assets or increasing total equity has a similar impact. Our results also suggest that financial reforms currently being undertaken in China, including removing the regulatory requirement concerning the ratio of loans to deposits (a new draft amendment to the existing commercial banking law) and interest rate liberalization (a proposed draft amendment), are likely to induce a significant positive effect on bank efficiency in China.
  • AFBC – The Complementary Roles of Board Incentives and Market Monitoring: Theory and Evidence

    Source: Peter L. Swan
    Date Submitted: 18 Sep 2016
    Views: 803
    Downloads: 8
    Australasian Finance and Banking Conference Submission
  • Business Group Discount: Evidence from China

    Source: Lewis Tam, Jingyi Chen
    Date Submitted: 30 Aug 2016
    Views: 550
    Downloads: 11
    A study on business group discount in China
  • CIBT Education Group Inc. (TSX: MBA) – Q3 Update: Positioning to Capitalize on the Tight Vancouver Rental Market

    Source: Sid Rajeev, CFA
    Date Submitted: 28 Jul 2016
    Views: 640
    Downloads: 3
    Fundamental Research Corp is issuing an update “CIBT Education Group Inc. (TSX: MBA) – Q3 Update: Positioning to Capitalize on the Tight Vancouver Rental Market ” in a report dated July 21, 2016. The full report is now at MBA is an FRC Top Pick
  • Predictive Analytics in Capital Markets

    Source: Nitin Singh
    Date Submitted: 13 Jul 2016
    Views: 621
    Downloads: 16
    Predictive Analytics in Capital Markets
  • What Does the Chaori Default Mean for the Chinese Financial Markets? Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on LinkedIn Share via E-Mail

    Source: Larry Cao, CFA
    Date Submitted: 29 Jun 2016
    Views: 870
    Downloads: 0
    This is a blog posted on CFA Institute's website on 13 March 2014.
  • Dividend-Price Ratios and Stock Returns: International Evidence

    Source: Bradford Cornell
    Date Submitted: 28 Jun 2016
    Views: 973
    Downloads: 0
    The Gordon growth formula can be written in the form of the dividend–price ratio as (Dt/P0) = R – g, under the assumptions that future dividends will grow at a constant rate (i.e., g) forever and that the expected returns on equity (i.e., R) will never change. The ability of this ratio to predict future returns is a question of widespread debate among both academics and market participants because some believe that the dividend–price ratio is a predictor of future dividend growth. Empirical research has revealed that the dividend–price ratio can forecast future returns because the ratio is high when expected returns are likely to be high and vice versa. But as the author hypothesized in previous work, the relationship is dependent on the volatility of real dividend growth.
  • How to Read between the Lines of Asian Financial Statements

    Source: Larry Cao, CFA
    Date Submitted: 27 Jun 2016
    Views: 1352
    Downloads: 0
    This is a blog posted on CFA Institute's website on 24 August 2014.
  • Technical Basic Guide to Deep Learning

    Source: Syed Danish Ali
    Date Submitted: 23 Jun 2016
    Views: 578
    Downloads: 5
    Investigate the basic tenets of deep learning and why deep learning is becoming very important for investments.
  • 当投资者不再接受常识之后

    Source: 黄凡, CFA
    Date Submitted: 21 Jun 2016
    Views: 417
    Downloads: 0
    This article is published on 22 June 2016.
  • Three Clues for Assessing Management

    Source: A. Michael Lipper, CFA
    Date Submitted: 17 Jun 2016
    Views: 928
    Downloads: 0
    This is a blog posted on CFA Institute's website on 30 November 2015.
  • Planning, Budgeting and Forecasting: An eye on the future

    Source: O'Mahony, J., Lyon, J.
    Date Submitted: 10 Jun 2016
    Views: 1033
    Downloads: 12
    A global report (first of three) jointly commissioned by the ACCA and KPMG to evaluate how the Enterprise Performance Management capability within finance functions is providing the business with insightful profitability and cost analysis through appropriate people, processes and technology.
  • The Costs of Corporate Litigation in Australia

    Source: Asjeet S. Lamba, Ian Ramsay
    Date Submitted: 07 Jun 2016
    Views: 930
    Downloads: 0
    This paper presents the results of a study that measures the costs associated with litigation for plaintiff and defendant companies for a sample of companies listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. The study uses event study methodology to examine the effects of litigation initiation announcements, settlement announcements and judgment announcements. The study also examines whether the impact of an announcement is related to the type of plaintiff (such as corporate plaintiff or a government plaintiff) and whether the impact differs according to the type of legal claim (such a breach of contract, a trade practices matter, an intellectual property infringement or securities fraud).
  • The Role of Executive Stock Options in On-Market Share Buybacks

    Source: Asjeet S. Lamba, Vivek M. Miranda
    Date Submitted: 07 Jun 2016
    Views: 941
    Downloads: 0
    The increasing use of on-market buyback programs in Australia may not be fully explained by the typical motivations of information signaling and free cash flows offered by previous researchers. For some firms at least, management may believe the shares are overvalued. It is in this context that we examine whether managers of firms with high levels of executive stock options have an incentive to initiate buyback programs. It has been argued that managers may be motivated to undertake on-market buyback programs in order to neutralize the dilution of earnings per share caused by their stock options, rather than for signaling purposes. Our findings are consistent with this argument because we find that the higher the proportion of executive stock options outstanding the more likely it is for firms to undertake larger on-market buyback programs. Overall our results indicate that the existence of executive stock options influences managers' decision to implement on-market buyback programs but that it is not the only factor that managers take into consideration.
  • Comparing Share Buybacks in Highly Regulated and Less Regulated Market Environments

    Source: Asjeet S. Lamba, Ian Ramsay
    Date Submitted: 07 Jun 2016
    Views: 838
    Downloads: 0
    Do changes in the legal and regulatory environment of a country affect companies' financing/investment decisions? In this paper, we address this question by examining the market's reaction to announcements of share buybacks in Australia. Before 1989, Australian companies were prohibited from repurchasing their shares and, until 1995, they were heavily regulated with few companies repurchasing their shares. In December 1995, the regulations governing share buybacks were simplified making it considerably easier for companies to repurchase their shares. The changing Australian legal regulation of share repurchases provides a unique opportunity to test the effects of legal regulation on companies' financing/investment decisions. We find that, unlike in the United States, the market reacts most positively to on-market buybacks (equivalent to open-market repurchases), while the reaction to other types of share buybacks is positive but not statistically significant. We also find that the abnormal returns earned by resource sector companies announcing share buybacks are higher than the abnormal returns earned by share buybacks announced by companies in the industrial and financial services sectors. An examination of matched companies announcing share buybacks before and after the regulatory changes in December 1995 shows that the market attaches a substantially higher value to the removal of stringent regulations governing share buybacks. This evidence is consistent with the expectation that the stringent regulation of share buybacks during 1989-1995 made them less effective as a credible signaling mechanism.
  • What Motivates Block Share Ownership?

    Source: Asjeet S. Lamba, Geofrey P. Stapledon
    Date Submitted: 07 Jun 2016
    Views: 991
    Downloads: 0
    Diffuse share ownership is not as pronounced in the U.S. as many would assume. This has led to a body of research examining large shareholders, or blockholders. Issues addressed include whether firms with a blockholder perform better or worse than widely-held firms; whether firms with a blockholder pay their executives differently to widely-held firms; and whether the presence of a blockholder increases or decreases the incidence takeovers. Another issue, which this paper explores, is what motivates block share ownership. Bebchuk (1999a, 1999b) develops a model which predicts that a firm is more likely to have a controlling blockholder if the anticipated private benefits of control at that firm are comparatively large. This paper examines the factors associated with ownership structure among publicly traded Australian firms. Our results indicate that private benefits of control are a significant factor in explaining the differences in ownership structure among Australian firms. As importantly, we also find that the relationship between the existence of a blockholder and private benefits of control is endogenous. That is, the presence of a controlling blockholder strongly influences the prevalence of these private benefits of control.
  • Dual-Class Shares: From Google to Alibaba, Is It a Troubling Trend for Investors?

    Source: Matt Orsagh, CFA, CIPM
    Date Submitted: 07 Jun 2016
    Views: 920
    Downloads: 4
    This is a blog posted on CFA Institute's website on 1 April 2014
  • Corp Gov Roundup: Risk, Compliance, Shareholder Value “Alignment Gap,” Proxy Access

    Source: Matt Orsagh, CFA, CIPM
    Date Submitted: 07 Jun 2016
    Views: 874
    Downloads: 1
    This is a blog posted on CFA Institute's website on 2 December 2014.
  • Alibaba IPO: What It Says about Shareholder Rights in Asia

    Source: Paul Smith, CFA
    Date Submitted: 07 Jun 2016
    Views: 960
    Downloads: 2
    This is a blog posted on CFA Institute's website on 21 October 2013.
  • Institutional Investors Reject Tata Motors Pay Resolutions: Is Tide Changing in India?

    Source: Padma Venkat, CFA
    Date Submitted: 07 Jun 2016
    Views: 875
    Downloads: 1
    This is a blog posted on CFA Institute's website on 23 July 2014.
  • Hontex IPO: How Did It Happen and Who’s to Blame?

    Source: Alexander Flatscher
    Date Submitted: 06 Jun 2016
    Views: 894
    Downloads: 2
    This is a blog posted on CFA Institute's website on 29 June 2012.
  • Does Institutional Shareholding Affect Firm Value_An Empirical Analysis in Indian Market

    Source: Dr. Amiya Kumar Sahu
    Date Submitted: 29 May 2016
    Views: 6070
    Downloads: 142
    This is a working paper from my PhD thesis on "MONITORING BY FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS AND IMPACT ON FIRM PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA". The paper empirical provides evidence of emergence of Institutional monitoring in India's corporate governance sphere dominated by foreign institutions (FIIs).
  • Property Fund valuation in Thailand

    Source: Pongtum Thavaramara
    Date Submitted: 29 May 2016
    Views: 920
    Downloads: 22
    Thailand's market in Property funds (REITs) is characterized by a large number of externally managed small funds, most of which are traded at a discount from their Net Asset Values (NAV). This paper will analyze the relationship between the REIT structure and deviations from NAV. Using panel data from 36 different Thai property funds from 2008 to 2014, a random effects model is applied to explain the variations from NAV. Empirical results show that factors that managers can control have significant positive effect on premia, and that the effect is observed in the very short run. This provides evidence that investors are willing to pay a premium for REITs with better fundamentals.
  • Dual Class Shares - Is India Ready for it?

    Source: Aditya Jadhav CFA
    Date Submitted: 27 May 2016
    Views: 3628
    Downloads: 66
    This research article intends to create awareness about DVRs/Dual class shares in India, to study the international as well as domestic experience and tries to examine the various factors that affect DVR share prices. This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Macroeconomics and Finance in Emerging Market Economies on 01 March 2012, available online:
  • The Disaster of Dick Smith explained in detail

    Source: Angelo Aspris
    Date Submitted: 10 May 2016
    Views: 5445
    Downloads: 256
    This is a presentation that provides a detailed analysis of the Dick Smith collapse chronicling the acquisition by Anchorage from Woolworths in September 2012 through to its passing into voluntary administration in early 2016. This presentation addresses the role of Anchorage and senior management in this collapse. It also provides some commentary around PE listings and the role of auditors and investigative accountants. Questions and comments are welcome.
  • Earnings Management, IPO Underpricing, and Post-Issue Stock Performance of Chinese SMEs

    Source: Jing Gao, Ling Mei Cong, John Evans
    Date Submitted: 15 Apr 2016
    Views: 608
    Downloads: 4
    This article empirically examines the association between earnings management and initial public offering (IPO) performance (underpricing and post-issue stock performance) of Chinese small and medium enterprises (SMEs).
  • Payout Policy preference of Listed Firms in the Philippines Stock Exchange

    Source: Mary Joy V. Imperial
    Date Submitted: 27 Mar 2016
    Views: 656
    Downloads: 10
    Payout Policy preference of Listed Firms in the Philippines Stock Exchange using Aggregate cash dividend expenditures and shares repurchase expenditures
  • A Company Outlook on Aboitiz Power Corporation 2015 onwards

    Source: Jeffrey Ayo, Daniel Camagay, Ronald Tan, Martin Whalley
    Date Submitted: 17 Mar 2016
    Views: 888
    Downloads: 37
    A general outlook on Aboitiz Power Corporation, a publicly listed company on the Philippine stock exchange.
  • Insight on: ASEAN Integration and its impact on Banking and Finance sector in the Philippine setting

    Source: Fiona Rhea Yntela
    Date Submitted: 14 Mar 2016
    Views: 1334
    Downloads: 15
    The paper is about a commentary regarding the ASEAN integration, its purpose and objectives, plans and benefits towards banking industry in the Philippine setting. Pros and cons have been discussed but it is limited to what is seen in the banking and finance markets of the said country.
  • Banking is necessary, banks are not

    Source: Aditya Jadhav CFA
    Date Submitted: 07 Mar 2016
    Views: 1190
    Downloads: 0
    There will always be a need for financial services. However, the developed world is waking up to a new idea that traditional i.e. high cost banking, which has not evolved for more than century, might not be the best way to carry out financial transactions. Bill Gates sees this as a big opportunity for technological innovation. No wonder he has said: “Banking is Necessary. Banks are Not.”
  • Impact of Corporate Governance on Financial Practices of New Zealand Companies

    Source: Hardjo Koerniadi
    Date Submitted: 22 Feb 2016
    Views: 745
    Downloads: 7
    This article has been published in Applied Finance Letters, Volume 2(2), 2013, pp. 14-19.
  • First Trading-Day Returns and Post-Issue Stock Performance of PRC Primary Foreign Listing Firms

    Source: Cong Ling Mei, J-L.W. Mitchell Van der Zahn, Greg Tower
    Date Submitted: 14 Dec 2018
    Views: 588
    Downloads: 5
    Analysis of first day trading returns and post-issue stock performance of PRC firms with a primary foreign listing.